Regions and countries
§ 22. Overview of European countries.
From the geographical point of view of Europe rests in the Northern Hemisphere and washed by two oceans: the Arctic and Atlantic and seas. It is not so large (10 million km2), as Asia, is not so compact as Australia, less exotic than Africa, with its length north to south is much smaller than in America, but its topography, climate, flora and fauna are diverse and quite interesting, and people that populate Europe have a long and interesting history.
The name of the world comes from Greek mythology. Europe- Daughter of King Agenor of Phoenicia was abducted by Zeus, who turned bull. It pereplyvla sea on the back of the bull and got to the island Crete.
In ancient times, Europe was the cradle of many highly Civilizations: Aegean, Hellenic, Celtic, Roman and more. It became the world's largest region of the spread of Christianity. In the course of history of the European nations joined the natives of Africa, Asia, bringing with them their religion, customs and traditions. In the past most countries in Europe were either large colonial mother countries empires (Spain, Portugal, Holland, England, France, etc.) or the same were part of larger empires (Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova etc.). Only during the twentieth century. political map of Europe completely "Perekroyuvalasya" thrice.
Most of the territory has a moderate climate in the west - ocean, in the east - continental, with snowy and frosty winters. In the north Arctic and subarctic climate in the south - the Mediterranean. Here can be very hot, as in Spain, and can be snow and cold as in Finland. The largest rivers of Europe: Volga, Danube, Dnieper, Don, Pechora, Rhine, Vistula, Elbe, Odra, Rhone, Loire, Tagus, the largest lakes: Ladoga, Onega, Chudskoi, Balaton, Geneva.
The relief is represented in different forms. Most of the territory has an average height of 300 meters above sea level. However, the mountains Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians, Apennines, Ural rise to medium altitudes.
Natural zone change from arctic deserts, tundra, tundra, taiga, mixed and deciduous forests to forest-steppe, steppe, Mediterranean forests and subtropical shrubs and even semidesert.
Traditionally, geographers divide in Europe following regions: Western, Central and Eastern Europe:
Modern Europe seeks not to the distribution of parts and to association. The most vivid illustration of this commitment - establishment of the Schengen area for more convenient free movement of persons and harmonization of border controls between European countries.
General characteristics of the population. Cities of Europe. Current research show that for 8 thousand years ago in Europe lived ancestors peoples who inhabit it today. Some people (the Basques) and live there still. Europe during this long time rolled many waves of migration that influenced the language, ethnic, religious and racial composition of its population.
Today in Europe is dominated by people of Indo-European language family: Romance, speaking in Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, French and other languages
The more homogeneous is the population of Europe in terms of its religious accessories. By the thirteenth century. Christianity has spread to virtually all region. Later it split into Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy, during Reformation XIV. separated from Catholicism Protestantism. Today, most Catholics in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Ireland, Belgium, Austria, Poland and Lithuania.
In the center of Vilnius
Orthodoxy - The main religion in Greece, Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine, in Belarus. Protestant religion professes great the population of northern Europe, Great Britain, Estonia, Latvia, the Netherlands. Islam, who came here with Ottoman invasion, the Turks profess today, the majority Albanians, some Bulgarians immigrants from Arab countries. Among the Jews living in Europe, common Judaism, and immigrants from Africa often observed traditional for their peoples religions and beliefs.
The average life expectancy compared to the previous 80-90th of the last century has increased by almost 3 - 4 years and is today: for men - 77.3 for women - 80.8 years. With the slowdown population growth due to low fertility rates in the vast most of the region observed the general aging of the nation. In many countries we are talking about increasing the mandatory retirement age.
Population distribution within Europe is quite uneven. Western and Central Europe - the most densely populated regions of the world, while in southern Italy, Spain, the Balkans density people sometimes reduced to 2 - 3 people per km2.
Over the past 20-30 years has changed the structure of employment. The share of employment increases primarily in the areas of non-production areas mainly in services, and decreases in the areas material production, especially in agriculture. It also impact on population distribution. An increasing number of residents cities, suburban areas are created, the number of people in rural areas.
The region has one of the highest level of urbanization. Today he reaches in some countries 90%. A characteristic feature of urbanization in Europe is that the greater proportion of the population lives in cities and urban agglomerations, there is a growing concentration of population. The largest in Europe and among the largest in the world is Rurska (5000000 people), London (13 million people), Paris (11 million people) city agglomeration.
The region formed the great megalopolis: English or Lon-Liv, to composed of 30 urban agglomerations, the largest of which - London Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool with a total population of 40 million people. Length axis megalopolis is 400 km and The average population density - 500 people per km2. Rhine megalopolis Rhine-Ruhr-Randstadt stretches for 500 km from Rotterdam to the property. Its total area of
In European cities, more and more weight gain environmentally friendly modes of transport
Today is the second city after Madrid, Spain, and seaport Barcelona - one of the largest in the Mediterranean Sea. The city is focused major banks, shipbuilding, automobile and machine-tool company. Work enterprise electrical, textile, chemical, pulp and paper, printing, wood, leather, food and other industries.
In 1886, the city is a monument to Columbus, it was here in 1492 , after an audience with Queen Isabella, he went on first trip to the shores of America.
Barcelona - a significant scientific and cultural center of Spain and Europe. The old university town founded in the fifteenth century., Operates astronomical Observatory, is Opera and Ballet Conservatory, Palace of Catalan music, opera "Liseo", zoo, aquarium and oceanarium with over than three thousand species of marine fauna. Barcelona are well preserved and reached the present day architectural monuments of all epochs, which due to the existence of the city.
Lisbon, capital of Portugal, the country's main port at the mouth of the River Tagus. Established merchants Phoenicia around 1200 BC There is a legend that Odysseus himself founded the city during the journey, after the city was the main settlement luzytan, zavoyovuvalosya Alans, svevamy, Visigoths, who owned it until the Arab conquest in 714, the
Lisbon is situated on seven hills, so in many stairs and cable cars, giving it a special identity. Architectural monuments strongly affected by the devastating earthquake in 1755 Oldest in the city: the Patriarchal church, the Romanesque cathedral (1160-86) and Gothic Carmelite Monastery (1389-1423)
Today Lisbon - the main industrial center, which focuses More than one third of the industrial potential. There are companies shipbuilding, electrical, chemical, metallurgical, light, Textile, clothing, cork, glass, ceramic, food industry. Formed several industrial suburbs:, resort areas. The city has an international airport and subway.
As a cultural and scientific center of Lisbon famous for its museums ancient, modern, religious and folk art, carriages, tiles, decorative arts, is in the city of Drama, Academy and Sciences University, founded in 1290
Vienna, the capital of Austria. Archaeological evidence shows traces of residence people in place today in Vienna since the Stone Age. In the 1st millennium BC here were Celtic and illiriyske settlement. Since 90 AD there was a Roman military camp Vindobona (from the Celtic "white box"). For the first time under Wenia name was mentioned in chronicles in 881 was known as the Vienna residence Dukes Bubenbergs state capital of the Hapsburgs, the center of the Holy Roman Empire, was captured by the Hungarian King Matthew Corvin, twice endured sediment Turkish troops, was occupied by troops Napoleon.
Today Vienna - a large river port and industrial center, which gives zahalnoavstriyskoyi third industrial products; Center engineering, shipbuilding, chemical, garment, shoe industry, tourist center and seat of the International organizations: UNIDO, IAEA, OPEC.
Most of the city located on the right bank of the Danube near foot of the Alps, low and wooded Downtown is close focus narrow streets, surrounded by horseshoe boulevard Ringstrasse, from which rays diverging streets leading to the suburbs.
Vienna is famous for its parks and palace and park ensembles: Lower Belvedere, Upper Belvedere, Sch
Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, situated at an altitude of 550 m above sea level on the southern outskirts of Sofia basin. Founded in the I century AD under name Serdika (Serdica, of Thracian tribe angry) as a Roman military settlement. In the VI century. Emperor Justinian built a church here Hagia Sophia, which later was named city. Sofia is among the most rich greenery capitals of Europe. Major industrial Enterprise (Kremykivskyy Mill Steel Works and ferrous metals) are located in the northern and eastern regions city. More than 17% of industrial production is concentrated in the country capital: machinery, machine tools, instrumentation, metallurgy, electrical, chemical, rubber, pulp and paper, food, textile, light industry.
By Sophia architectural monuments include the Church of St. George (IV cent.) Roman wall (III-VI cent.), The church of Hagia Sophia (VI cent.) Boyanskaya Church (1259), Buyuk-Mosque (1474), Banja-bashi mosque (1576), black mosque (1528) and others.
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, located on the islands of Zealand and Amaher near the Strait Eresunn. Administrative center amta (AMT - District - administrative unit of Denmark in). Copenhagen - large industrial center, seaport, international airport (Kastrup), which gives 40% of the country's industrial output in value terms: shipbuilding, diesel, instrument, electrical, chemical, light industry, food industry, famous for producing products from silver and china (Royal porcelain factory). In 2000, through Strait Eresunn built a complex of engineering buildings length of 16 km, which linked the Copenhagen with the Swedish city of Malmo crossing.
First Copenhagen ("merchant harbor") is mentioned in 1043 as a village Havn ("Harbor"), in 1167 Bishop Absalonom built castle and strengthening, and since 1170 the city has a modern name.
Great cultural and scientific center of the country and Europe has three universities, the oldest of them, Copenhagen, founded in 1479 Architectural monuments of the city: Rosenborh palaces in the style of Danish Renaissance (Museum of the Royal Family), Baroque Sharlottenborh (Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1672-77). Near City Hall are the world's oldest amusement park "Tivoli" (1843) and recently built "Bella Center", the largest in Northern Europe Pavilion for exhibitions, fairs and congresses. A symbol of Copenhagen has become famous Bronze Mermaid on the rocks near the shore Eresunna.
Helsinki, the capital of Finland, the administrative center lyany Usuma (lyany - Province - administrative unit in Finland).
The city was founded by King Gustav of Sweden and Vaza in 1550, systematic building of the city on a regular schedule after the fire started 1808 In the second half of XX century. have built up the city-satellites: Espoo, Vantaa, Tapiola and Otaniyemi.
The city is a port on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, International Airport (Malmi), Subway. Helsinki - a major industrial center of the country, here are the machine building, shipbuilding, electrical, chemical, textile, food industry.
The system consists of ensembles of the historical center of trade and Senate Square. In 1640 founded University. Famous museum fortress Sveaborg, National Museum, "Athenaeum," Ethnography, outdoors in Seurasari park, Architectural Museum, National Theater. Top architectural monuments of the city: the former Senate building (1818) St Andrew's Cathedral. Nicholas (1830-52), University of the observatory and Library (1828).
Thessaloniki, the administrative center nome (nom - administrative unit in Greece). Aegean port city sea
Thessaloniki - the birthplace of Slavic educators Cyril and Methodius. The most ancient architectural buildings are Roman triumphal arch Gallery (300 by BC), numerous Byzantine churches, including Rotunda of St. George (500), the basilica of St. Demetrius (V cent.) basil St. Sophia (V-VIII cc.).
General features of the economy. Zapronovanyy above historical and geographical division of Europe is losing its meaning in connection with the integration processes in world economy. In Europe, these processes are manifested in formation of the European Union - a qualitatively new economic, political and social and cultural unification. For the EU GDP per capita population data for 2008 is $ 33.800. For the composition of sectors total economy GDP is formed from the value of agricultural production economy, which gives 2%, industry - 26.8%, services - 71.2 %. Employment is divided almost in the same way: in agriculture sector employed 4.3%, industry - 26.4%, services: 70.3 %.
Flag of the European Union
After World War II, when Europe's economy was the almost solid waste places of the U.S. Marshall Plan was developed. The main purpose plan put forward by Secretary of State George Marshall June 5, 1947, was improve the economic plight of postwar Europe and Prevention European transition countries in the socialist camp. Consent to participate in Marshall Plan gave 16 Western European countries: UK, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Ireland, Iceland, Portugal, Austria, Switzerland, Greece, Turkey. Assistance was provided to the U.S. federal budget in the form grant subsidies and loans. From 1948 to 1951 the U.S. spent on Marshall Plan about 17 billion dollars. The major share (60%) received the United Kingdom, France, Italy and West Germany. 30 December 1951 the Marshall Plan formally ceased to have effect.
Participating countries were required to promote "free Entrepreneurship ", to encourage private U.S. investment, cooperate in the reduction of customs tariffs in the U.S. to supply some scarce goods, to ensure financial stability, create special funds in local currency, which is released as a result receive U.S. assistance, expenditure which would be controlled by the U.S. report regularly on use of funds received by the Administration economic cooperation, which led the American financiers and political figures.
Today the economy in the region is developing most rapidly and high. Its foundation consists of black and nonferrous metallurgy, Oil and Gas, oil, coal and hazohimiya, oil refining, cement, chemical, pharmaceutical industry, space industry, instruments and equipment, passenger and commercial vehicles, industrial equipment, shipbuilding, energy, electrical tools and automatic manufacturing systems, electronics and telecommunications equipment, fish, food and processing industry, furniture, paper, textiles, tourism, etc..
The economy of the region comprises three main sectors: private and state and foreign, whose share has increased in recent years from 25 to 30%. In an international geographic division of labor economy of Europe provided high quality engineering products, accounting for accounted for almost 2 / 3 of exports. Scientific base, city agglomeration, extensive transport system, the presence of highly educated staff - all of which became major factors industry development.
In terms of final output value of the second sector of the economyEurope is the chemical industry. Enterprises oriented as their own and on imported raw materials. Eastern Europe guided by their own brown coal (Be
Energy focuses on energy and the atom water resources. The largest hydroelectric power station built on the rivers Danube ("Iron Gate"), Tagus, Douro (Portugal and Spain), Dordogne (France). The largest nuclear power plants operating in France, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Czech Republic, Hungary and Bulgaria. Heat power oriented deposits of brown (Germany in the Cologne and Cottbus, the Czech Republic in Teplice and Chomutov District) and Stone coal (Poland - Upper Silesia).
Iron and steel industry has received a high enough level in the countries have their own raw material base - Germany, Britain, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain, Poland, Czech Republic. Port metallurgical plants that were built after World War II, guided by import more cheap and high quality iron ore (from Brazil, Liberia, South Africa, Canada, Australia) or scrap. Recently widespread construction of steel mini-mills (France - Fos).
Ferrous metallurgy oriented to import materials from developing countries (Guinea, Jamaica, Ghana, Venezuela, Suriname - bauxite, Mexico, Chile, Namibia, Zambia, Zaire - copper ore). Geographically they are either targeted to the energy source provided lack of raw ore (Germany, Austria, Norway, Switzerland) or own ore deposits (France, Italy, Hungary, Romania, Greece - bauxite). Specializes in Europe vyplavlyanni aluminum and copper.
Light industry, which until recently was a branch of specialization many Western European countries, moved to Eastern Europe: Baltic countries, Belarus, Poland and south of Europe - where there is free workforce.
In northern Europe in Finland, Sweden and other pronounced lisonadmirnyh areas received development lisoenerhohimichnyy complex. He includes logging, lumber production, construction details, wood-voloknuvatyh and chipboard, manufacture of pulp, cardboard, paper, chemical and mechanical processing wood - get alcohol, Furfural, fodder yeast, hydrolyzed wood raw material - production Turpentine, rosin, acetic acid. Along with this growing machine-building complex, which provides all these production of necessary equipment and machines.
The world's largest port and industrial complex is a control panel that formed at the Europort in Rotterdam. It has a turnover of about 300 million tons per year and serves more than 300 thousand and 250 thousand marine river vessels. Its hinterland is applicable not only to the Netherlands, but also in Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Austria.
Netherlands-a country of tulips
After the canal the Rhine - Main - Danube Area Economic Impact PPK spread and Danubian country Din has a specialization: Port metallurgy, reception and processing of large volumes of oil ship repair and shipbuilding.
Recently, with the further development of science in Western and Central Europe is becoming a more common scientific and technological parks (technology parks). Thus, in France they have numbering over 40 in Germany - over 20. They contribute to the development of new technologies, further economic rise of countries.
Most European countries have almost completely satisfy their own needs of agricultural production, some of them interested in export crop production (Spain, Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine) and livestock (UK, Norway, Finland) to other countries. Significant changes in rural development economy occurred in Europe after the Second World War. From small farm in most countries of Western Europe (Except Southern Europe, where the remaining small farmers management and tenants) moved to high commodity farm with a high level of mechanization, automation and chemicals.
Historical and natural climatic conditions led to the formation of such specialization in agriculture in Europe: Nordic, Central European and South European.
The livestock farm. Ireland
Northern European type of agriculture (United Kingdom, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland) specializes in vysokotovarnomu dairy farming, poultry farming, pig farming and sheep and crop fields, which provide fodder base. Among the major crops should be made minor technical crops crops (flax, sugar beet), with grain - oats and wheat, mostly feed.
Farm for breeding salmon. Iceland
Central European type characterized by a predominance dairy and beef cattle, swine, poultry, sheep and highly enough of the plant growing crops - wheat, barley, rye, industrial crops - sugar beets, potatoes, corn; vegetable gardening.
South-European type distinguishes the predominance of crop on livestock production. This is due primarily to Mediterranean type climate (Spain, Italy, Greece), which can grow subtropical and tropical crops: citrus, olives, tobacco, almonds, nuts, grapes, essential-oil crops that used in perfumery, pharmaceutical and food industry.
In mountainous areas (Austria, Switzerland, Spain, France, Romania, Greece) developed grazing livestock in areas of large cities - Agriculture suburban type, which provides urban residents meat and dairy products, vegetables, fruit. Most powerfully, it works in Germany, the Netherlands, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Poland.
The celebration of cheese. Netherlands
The main export products of the region: machinery, vehicles, aircraft, plastics, a wide range of chemicals, including pharmacy, engineering, iron and steel, nonferrous metals, wood, paper and printing products, textiles, meat, dairy products, fish products, alcoholic beverages, clothing, furniture, shoes, perfumes, etc..
Importing countries mainly machinery, equipment, aero-and marine ports and vehicles, plastics, crude oil, chemicals, textiles, metals, food, clothing and raw materials and intermediates.
Principle of international disputes over borders with neighboring countries Europe is not, but Estonia has no land boundary agreements with Russia, Slovenia discusses their land and sea borders with Croatia, Spain has territorial and maritime disputes with Morocco through Gibraltar.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Clustering- A combination of enterprises for which the territorial unity is an additional factor efficiency due to: the duration of relationships and rhythm production complex, reducing transport costs; rational use all local resources and favorable conditions for maneuvering them, creating optimal conditions for the convergence industry, intersectoral and territorial control.
Port-industrial complex (PPK) - Form territorial organization of the marine sector and adjacent areas, combining marine ports, industrial plants, coastal settlements, social and industrial infrastructure, location which in the coastal zone due to exploitation of land resources and Sea, software and other external economic relations.
Hinterland (from it. Hinterland)- area that tends to a center city or several cities. Often used to determine the area that is adjacent to port cities.