§ 20. External links. International tourism.
External links. International (geographical) division of labor led to the necessity of participation of countries in international economic relations, that is to share material and spiritual values. Today no, even the most developed countries unable to produce the entire range goods and services necessary for effective management.
Those countries that are more dependent on global economic ties, called countries with open economies. Degree of openness determined export quota - the share of exports to GDP country. For example, Singapore's export quota is 70% in Belgium - 60%, and the U.S. - 10%.Basic forms of international economic relations - an international trade, providing international services, financial and credit relations, scientific and technical cooperation, international industrial cooperation international tourism.
London - the financial capital of the world
World trade. World (international) trade - one of the oldest forms of international relations. In global trade accounted for 80% volume of international economic relations. World trade - a trade; that involves moving raw materials, goods and services outside the state boundaries. It can be interpreted as relations between the countries to export (Exports) and imports (imports) raw materials, goods and services.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Imports (From Lat. Importo - vvozhu) - exports of goods and capital into the country from abroad.
Export (From Lat. Exporto - vyvozhu) - export of goods or capital abroad.
Foreign trade at the present stage is extremely dynamic. It associated with the deepening of WFP, specialization and cooperation in production internationally, to eliminate many barriers to international trade, high rates of "newly industrialized countries".
In the role of buyers and sellers act states, state and NGOs, individuals, private equity and cooperative businesses and companies. Any state for operation global market should have its foreign infrastructure - a system that can ensure the promotion of goods and services from producer to consumer in another country. In this system is a major logistical base (hardware stores) and specialized organizations for after-sale technical service. Cash payments from foreign operations and foreign trade are mostly banking institutions.World trade is characterized by: turnover, commodity structure, geographical distribution.
For commodity structure characterized by a continuous decrease the share of fuels, raw materials, semi finished and increase the share products. Today in the commodity structure of world exports 2 / 3 - a products manufacturing industry, and its share tends to increase, but less than 1 / 3 - raw materials and foodstuffs. High rapidly growing international trade in machinery, equipment, products electrical engineering, the latest technology products.
Export of raw materials involved not only developing countries. The important role played by exports of raw materials, such as economy of Australia, Canada, Norway.
At present rates of growth ahead of the external trade turnover production growth, which indicates a deepening of international (Geographical) division of labor.
Dominant position in world trade are developed countries, which account for 2 / 3 the volume of imports and exports. Leader in international Trade is Europe, which accounts for half of world trade. Second place Asia, including Asia and the Pacific on led by Japan. North America ranks third. The largest exporters of the world are USA, Germany, Japan, France, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium. A characteristic feature of today is increase the share of trade between developed countries themselves. In her account 70% of world trade.
Growing share in world trade of developing countries. Through specialization of certain raw materials for them there is a threat status "Raw material appendage" to developed countries. Therefore, they seek restructure its foreign trade, barter raw materials for change industrial products, develop new directions. Strong position in the world market belongs to the Gulf - the oil producers.
The main international organization that regulates world issues Trade is the SRT (World Trade Organization). Its main principles - development of trade on economic laws, and without protective discriminatory measures. To specialized international economic Institutions are also United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Trade Centre (ITC) United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), International Organization for regulating world trade markets.
International economic relations
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Exchange- Is the organizational form of trade, in which is to market large single homogeneous goods. By world exchange turnover involved more than 90 types of goods. Exchange continue to promote the conclusion of agreements, engaging in them; set prices for basic goods, carry out the operations of insurance trade agreements and raw material reserves of changes in market prices. On Current exchange goods we sell, and plans to enter into contracts for- supply in the future based on projected demand and proposals.
Auctions- Auctions, specializing in marketing goods from a purely individual properties (fur, wool, tobacco, tea, antiques, diamonds, etc.).
International tenders - An organizational system mainly to market of new product forms. This is the most common way of placing orders for the supply of machinery, equipment, performance scientific, design and research, industrial and construction cultural objects. All the organizational work of the bidding to tender (Tender Committee).
Provision of international services. Widespread acquired the services to service ships, freight Ships and aircraft services in insurance, advertising, film distribution; rent scientific and industrial equipment manufacturing experience exchange (Who was known internationally as the "know-how"). Factors contributing to rapid economic development, is leasing (renting industrial Yi scientific and technical equipment) and consulting (technical advice projects).
Leasing - A loan in the form of rent equipment, vehicles, ships, airplanes, etc. available for 3-15 years. Leasing includes a package of services: installation, maintenance of spare parts, maintenance and insurance. Often leasing arrangements negotiated simultaneously with freighting contract that guarantees employment aircraft or vessel for a long time. At the end of the lease agreement Tenant may purchase leased property for its residual value.
Know-how - Transfer of technical expertise and secrets of the use of which provides certain advantages.
Financial and credit relations expressed in the provision of credits and loans in the form of exports of capital and private equity investments.
International capital flows be private and state, long-term (bonds, stocks, patents or copyrights) and short (of a bill credit of up to year and less). Long-term capital investments are made in the form direct and portfolio investment.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
International credit - A movement of loan capital by national borders between subjects of international economic relations associated with the provision of currency and commodity resources under return, urgency and interest payment. Each country is an exporter and importer of capital.
The driving force behind this relationship is a transnational corporation. Worldwide formed three centers of financial and credit activities: U.S. West Europe, Japan. Global investors are interested in cooperation with Asian countries (China, India), Central and South America. China is regarded as a country that has the greatest potential due to size, political stability (regardless of sympathy for the very authority in China), skilled labor force, the Chinese interest government for investment. India attracts scale, relative stability, English middle class, but discourages bureaucracy of government. The Central and South American respondents are interested in the U.S. positive example of economic recovery in the countries of the western level urbanization (Brazil, Mexico). Eastern Europe - Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic have a suitable strategic location, skilled workforce development for high technology. Africa & Middle East attractive natural resources.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Scientific and technical cooperation - New form international relations, which are conducted on a commercial or noncommercial basis and are shown in the exchange or sale of scientific and technical knowledge of scientific research and experimental development work and develop and use scientific and technical standards, requirements and standards, exchange general and technical, marketing information and in developing joint projects.
License - The right to use any registered invention (in the form of a patent). Most patents (Domestic and foreign inventors) are registered in the U.S., which is major seller of patents on the world market. The main buyers of patents - Japan and Germany, which once formed a scientific and technical potential largely due to imports of scientific knowledge.
International technology transfer - A set of economic relations established between enterprises in different countries the use of foreign scientific and technological achievements. It includes transfer of technology (methods and techniques of production of goods and rendering services) and materialized technology (machinery and equipment).
Engineering - Sale of engineering and consulting services.
The program «Sea-Lunch» (Sea Launch), which involved Ukraine, USA, Norway and Russia, with a floating platform Odyssey " carried launches spacecraft near Fr. Christmas in Oceania by using the Ukrainian launch vehicles "Zenith".
International industrial cooperation. International Production Cooperation - international specialization and cooperative production joint production of bi-or multilateral basis, when individual cranes involved in the production of a product, in collaboration field of capital construction, joint ventures. Widely used international industrial cooperation in engineering, in particular the automotive industry, rocket-and aircraft. It can occur in the form of industrial-commercial agglomerations (Vovk) - temporary, relatively well-established associations with joint industrial base, technological, scientific and technical unity. For example: "Siemens" (Germany) - Intel (USA) - development and production microprocessors, Toshiba (Japan) - "Kaminz Endzhin" (USA) - development and engine production of fine ceramics, Mitsubishi (Japan) - Boeing (USA) - development airliner with 150 seats.
International tourism. International tourism is undergoing significant rise. The development of tourism has affected the STC, which increased the share free time people employed in manufacturing, helped create entertainment industry and mass recreation. Simultaneously, intensive job encourages people to find adequate rest, to obtain new knowledge about the world.
There are following types of tourism: recreational, Tour, scientific, businesslike. The distinctive types of tourism include religious pilgrimage. The leaders are recreation and sightseeing. Thriving tourism industry - a network hotels, campgrounds, travel agencies, advertising agencies, transportation companies, the production of souvenirs decisive role in choosing a country for a travel recreational play Resources: natural and climatic conditions, national landmarks, and the relevant material and technical base: travel agencies, transport companies, trading companies.
The most attractive regions in the world for tourism is in the Cote d'Azur France, the Ligurian Riviera in Italy, Costa Brava and Costa del Sol in Spain, the Alps in Switzerland and Austria, Croatia and the Adriatic coast Montenegro's Black Sea coast of Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, High Tatras Slovakia, Lake Balaton in Hungary, California Seaside, Florida in the U.S., Mexican coast and hinterland Mexico, the Middle East (Israel, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey), Thailand, Singapore, historical and cultural centers of India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, South Africa.
Cows on the streets - a common phenomenon for the Indian capital
Although geography is very diverse international tourism, the main stream tourists move within developed countries. The most attractive area for tourists is Europe. Leading tourism takes place in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, France, Greece and Israel. Today, mass Tourism - a profitable branch of economy in many countries. For share exchange revenues it has a leading position in Greece, Cyprus, Spain, Mexico, Italy, USA.
According to the International Tourism Organization annually over 500 million tourists visit different countries and regions. For Spain and Austria tourism - one of the main export industries, it gives under 30% and 80% of export profits.
Organisation of sporting events and competitions also belongs to one of forms of foreign economic activity, as together the efforts and finances many participating countries. Is the biggest summer and winter Olympics, World and European championships in various sports.
Cultural cooperation includes the organization of exhibitions of paintings, expositions of the world's leading museums, music and song contests, festivals, exchange of creative groups, a joint study of cultural and historical values, the exchange of film, video and audio products.
Global Tourism Destinations