§ 17 Industry. Geography key industries world (energy, metallurgy, chemical industry, Forestry and timber industry, light industry).
Industry determines the potential of the economy, technical level production, utilization of natural, material and labor resources.
For the curious
Over the past 100 years, industrial output increased 50 times.
All industries depending on the time of distinguishable three groups: old industry (coal, iron ore, metallurgical, textile industry, shipbuilding), whose development slowed today, but Geography location change for the benefit of developing countries, new industry (automotive, manufacturing aluminum, plastic, chemical fiber), which are concentrated mainly in developed countries, as well as developing countries where rapidly growing, new field (Electronics, computing, aerospace and microbiological industry), which are developing fast and steady pace, located in economically developed and the "newly industrialized countries."
Consider the geography of major industries.
Fuel and energy industry.
Fuel and energy industry includes the mining, processing of fuel (the industry), electricity, its transportation and distribution (electric power). It supplies fuel and electricity to all industries, providing the population warmth and energy. Fuel and energy complex is inter-branch one fund most capital-intensive and requires a cumbersome and expensive equipment.
Modern world scale energy exceed 11 billion tons conditional fuel (t.u.p) annually. Extraction of mineral fuels and electricity is growing rapidly. Thus, the twentieth century. produced more fuel than any previous human history.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Energy balance - The ratio of production of different types of fuel produced energy and their use in agriculture.
In the global energy balance of the currently predominant oil (35,8%), followed by coal (25,8%) and gas (27,5%).
Among the regions of the world's largest energy consumers are Asia, North America and Europe. Among individual countries as the biggest consumer Fuel and energy emit mainly developed countries and large countries, developing countries (U.S., China, Russia, Japan, Germany, India, Canada, France, Britain, Italy), and per capita - developed valves (Canada, USA, Australia, Netherlands, France, Great Britain, Russia, Germany, Japan, Switzerland).
In the twentieth century. there have been significant changes in the structure of the world use of primary energy resources: no longer use firewood, the share of coal, shale oil, but became widely use modern fuels - oil, natural gas. It led to higher prices for oil and natural gas price which was in 3-5 times higher than coal.
Fuel industry specializing in mining and processing of various fuels - in particular oil, coal, natural gas.
Coal - Among the oldest energy industries. During the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century. coal industry was leading. The largest number coal mining companies (mainly mines) accounted for the USA, Great Britain, Germany and the USSR.
In 50-60 years of the twentieth century. coal industry lost the oil, and then the gas industry. Only a world energy crisis in 1973 Stimulated coal, in particular the open method, which is relatively cheap.
In 70-80 years. Twentieth century. intensified the global coal trade. Countries that significantly exceeded its coal resources (or their output zdorozhchav), have begun to prefer imported resource. In particular, coal output cut Germany, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Japan, began to further increase exports of U.S. Australia, Poland, Indonesia, Colombia. Actively developing coal Industry of China and India. Emerging fast rates, require large quantities of fuel. Traditionally, a significant mining Coal is South Africa. A policy of discrimination against local black population, carried out by the government of South Africa, world Community introduced an embargo (ban) on oil imports to the country. After lifting of the embargo was aimed surplus coal for export. Coal industry transition countries - Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan - After the radical market reforms, is in deep crisis that leads to significant reductions in the volume of coal production.
Coal qualities per share to: stone (Among them anthracite - naykaloriynishe) - used as fuel; coking - Used in metallurgy; brown - Has a high ash content and low calorie.
Coal mined open (career) and closed (mine) ways. Clear the way much cheaper. In mines producing high quality coking coal used for coke production. Coal is also used in the chemical industry to produce aniline dyes, medicines.
Most coal mined in China, USA, India, Germany, Russia, Australia, South Africa. Coal is used mainly in countries where it is mined. On the export goes only 10% of the industry. Major coal exporters are the U.S., South Africa, Australia. Importing coal Japan, Western Europe, Brazil.
Coal and uranium mining industry
Coal mining is causing great harm to the environment. Under mines and waste piles (piles) alienated large territories. During transportation and processing of coal contaminated soil air, water. In areas where coal is difficult to recover vegetation, especially trees, because of impurities that increase the acidity soils. Hillsides with loose earth easily blur the showers. This area requires complex reclaiming activities.
Oil industry developed in over 80 countries world. Oil accounts for about 35% of all fuel used worldwide. Today, the global oil exceeds 3.5 billion tons per year. There are three ways to produce oil: Christmas tree (possible only for "young" areas) pump (much expensive, is used more often), coal (used rarely, for special types of "heavy" crude oil).
Oil - one of the most important commodities on world markets. It is widely used not only as fuel but also as a valuable chemical raw materials (for plastics, resins, rubber, dyes). Various fields of Oil distinguished by its quality: content of impurities, in particular - sulfur, paraffin, light fraction.
Oil production from the seabed. Nova Scotia, Canada
Most of the oil producing countries in Asia - 38% on the second place America - 21%. About 40% of world output accounted for OPEC member countries. Especially highlighted the Persian Gulf, within which are 2 / 3 of world's proven oil reserves and 1 / 3 of its extraction. The second important area - West-Siberian plain. For stocks Oil takes the first place, Saudi Arabia, the second - Russia. But complex natural conditions in Russia increased value of Russian oil. On export is 40-50% of oil produced. The major exporters Oil is the Middle East, Venezuela, Algeria, Libya, Russia. Buy Oil Europe, Japan and USA. Most of the oil transported by oil tankers.
Refineries (refinery) build around for oil, about consumers and oil pipelines. Preferred placement refinery near consumers, because crude oil is cheaper than petroleum products. Under most of the refinery located in developed countries. More than 50 million tons of oil annually processing refinery in New York, Houston, Los Angeles, Rotterdam.
Petroleum Company. Germany
Significantly slows global oil production established in 1960 "Oil cartel - OPEC, which sets quotas (quantitative restrictions) Member States on oil production. This organization tries to regulate volume of oil flowing to world markets, affecting world prices for oil.
To maintain the achieved volume and increase oil production is reconnaissance needs in new fields. In the middle of the twentieth century. actively began development of the marine shelf. Today the offshore producing about 1 / 4 of world's oil. Vast areas of offshore production is Persian Gulf (2 / 5 of world marine production), the Gulf of Maracaibo Venezuela (1 / 4 of world marine production), Gulf of Mexico, North Sea (Norway, UK, Denmark), Caspian Sea, Gulf of Guinea (Nigeria), Pivdennokytayske Sea (Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, Vietnam). Promising future of oil is shelf zone of the Northern Arctic Ocean region Pryantarktychni oceans.
Oil companies usually are the highest among industrial companies in the world. Most of their American owned, British, French and Netherlands capital. At the turn XX-XXI century. merged many companies. Among the major oil Companies release a Ekssonmobil "," Shefron Texaco "," Conoco Phillips " (USA), British Petroleum-Amok "(USA and UK), Royal Datch / Shell (UK and Netherlands), "Total Fina Elf (France and Belgium), "eon", "pit-Dea (Germany), ANNIE (Italy). Substantial deposits petroleum and capital are concentrated in capital companies in developing countries, - Petrobras (Brazil), PEMEX (Mexico), "Petroven (Venezuela). Russia has 5 large companies - Lukoil, TNK, "Surhutnyeftyehaz" "Sibnyeft", "Yuhansknyeftyehaz. Oil companies and the Gulf Africa are usually family members or monarch under control of the local elite.
Gas industry developing very fast pace. This is a high heat capacity gas simplicity use, minimal environmental pollution.
Gas is also an important chemical raw materials. The share of natural gas the fuel that is extracted, was increased in 60 years of the twentieth Art. Previously unquestioned leader in gas production were the USA, then 80 years of almost caught up and then overtook Russia. At the same become a rapidly increase the volume of gas production, Canada, Netherlands, Norway, Britain, Algeria, South-East Asia, the Persian Gulf, Latin America and Australia.
Today the first place in the world gas production, Russia is on second - the United States. Together these countries produce half of the gas mined in the world. Russia is one of the largest exporters of gas. Pipelines it provides this fuel and power resource for almost all of Europe. Algeria transports gas in the U.S. and Europe, countries Persian Gulf, Indonesia and Australia are selling gas in Japan.
Extraction and processing of natural gas is usually concentrated in the large oil companies (Gazprom (Russia), "British HPS" (United Britain and the U.S.)).
Production of oil and gas may lead to a range of environmental problems. Voids that are produced by mining, may cause failures of the soil. They are usually filled with water. Soot that formed by the accompanying gas, settling on the land surface in high latitudes is melting snow, reindeer moss destruction - an important forage olenyarstva. Accidents on oil pipelines leading to soil contamination, groundwater. Oil production on the shelf may lead to death of fish, birds and animals.
Oil and Gas Industry
The main task Electricity is producing electricity and provide it all industries. In terms development of the power draw conclusions on the development energy sector as a whole. World leader in volumes of electricity has become a big country World - USA, China, Japan, Russia and Canada.
Power station in South Wales
Most intensive increase electricity production in China India and Brazil. Compared rapidly evolving in the U.S., Japan, Canada, South Korea, South Africa decreases - in Russia (Decreasing demand), Germany (through the use of energy saving technologies). Most electricity produced per capita in Norway (about 30 thousand kW • h / person per year), Iceland, Canada, Sweden, USA, New Zealand, Australia and Finland. The poorest countries produce all the world to tens of kW • h / person per year. It means that the majority of the population in general does not use electricity.
World trade in electricity still poorly developed. The largest electricity exporters are France, Canada, Paraguay, importers - U.S., Germany, Italy, Brazil, Switzerland.
Depending on the resource and raw material potential of various countries are doing rates for some way of producing electricity. The whole world to thermal power plants (TPP) accounted for - 67% of electricity on hydroelectric power (HEP) and nuclear power plants (NPP) - 16% other types of power - 1%.
The dam on a mountain river. Arizona, USA
The largest plants have a capacity of more than 3 000 MW. Such little power in the world. The biggest of these is "Surgut number 2" (4 800 MW). The largest hydroelectric built or under construction in China, Brazil, U.S., Venezuela, Russia, Argentina, Paraguay, Canada. The largest plant built in Japan (Fukushima, 8000 MW), France (Hravlin), Canada ("Beam"), Ukraine (Zaporozhye), Russia (Sverdlovsk).
In developed countries, private capital are thermal, hydro and nuclear - state. This is because to build hydropower plants need a long time, that costs will pay off not once, not satisfied private capital. AES controls the state to comply with security measures. Power distribution systems (power lines) may belong country or be divided among several private companies that compete.
Nuclear power plant. Arizona USA
Metallurgical industry produces ferrous and nonferrous metals. Ferrous metals are alloys of iron (iron and various brands steel), color - the rest of metals and their alloys.
Metals - one of the main structural materials. For use a lot of metal components. First, it ore (the main raw material), fuel, various support materials. Production metal - a complex multistage process. Metallurgy is extremely material and kapitolomistkoyu industry. Since the 90's century. in developed Western countries almost all steel made in oxygen converters and furnaces. Via direct reduction of iron | metallized pellets produced in the world More than 40 million tons of steel.
In the first half of the twentieth century. iron ore geographically coincided with the main areas vyplavlyannya iron and steel and was concentrated mainly in developed countries in Europe and North America. Exception of the country in which the iron ore deposits were absent or until exhausted (eg Germany, UK). From Time was a gradual shift of iron ore in the new regions of the world, especially in developing countries, as were explored major new fields and even entire pools of iron ore. Important role in the reorientation of the new steel raw materials played and technical progress of maritime transport, which led to a sharp reduce the cost of transporting ore. Many countries had substantially reduce or entirely stop its own ore mining (United Britain, Germany, France, Spain, USA). Other countries, by contrast, began rapidly to increase the production of iron ore to its further exports (Brazil, Australia).
At the beginning of. largest iron ore mined in China, Brazil and Australia.
Large regions of the iron ore mining in Brazil was the so-called "Iron triangle" in the state of Minas Gerais and pool Serra dos Karazhas in the state of Para, in Australia - and pools Hammersli Intern Dindeyl in the far north west. Rapid development Iron ore industry is experiencing in China and India. China produces ore for their own needs, and India - for their own needs and for export. Traditionally, a significant amount of iron ore mined in Sweden and some African countries (South Africa, Mauritania, Liberia). On world market gets 1 / 2 ore that is mined, with 4 / 5 transported by sea.
The largest ore exporters are Brazil and Australia (40%), India Canada, South Africa, Sweden, Liberia, Chile, Mauritius. Large importers - Japan, European countries (Germany, Belgium? Luxembourg France, Italy, Britain, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia), USA. Japan receives iron ore from Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa; Germany - from Brazil, Sweden, Canada, United States - from Canada, Liberia, Venezuela.
Leading world producers of coke is China, the USA, some European countries, Ukraine, Russia. Cox usually produced in areas its use.
For the production of quality steel or steel with specified properties wide push alloyed metals. The most popular metals are doped molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, chromium, nickel, titanium. More than half molybdenum ore mined in the U.S., 2 / 5 tungsten ores - in China. World production of manganese ores are concentrated in South Africa Australia, Brazil, Gabon, India, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Georgia. Chromite mined in South Africa, Kazakhstan, Iran, Turkey, India, Fiji, Finland, Brazil, Albania, the Philippines.
Production of pig iron and steel mills traditionally full cycle tends to fuel and raw materials. Thus, the role of transport and consumer.
The level of development of ferrous metallurgy in the country can be drawn for the following indicators:
In recent years, a typical trend in developed countries develop small rolling mills. Initial stages of production of iron ("Dirty metals") superseded in developing countries. With 70 twentieth century. widely spread bezdomenna (wold DRI ") Steel - "Midreks"
For typical steel mills are large full cycle. The most powerful of them located in Fukuyama, Midzusimi, Kashima (Japan)? Baltimore, Trenton, Buffalo, Cleveland (USA)? Magnitogorsk, Lipetsk, Down Tahil (Russia)? Dortmund, Duisburg (Germany)? Krivoy Rog (Ukraine).
At the beginning of. these were the largest steel company: Arcelor SA (Luxembourg, France, Spain), "Nippon table" (Japan) "Interneshenel table groups", "Nyukor», «USH-steps Utd table (USA).
At the steel plant
For the production of heavy metal is usually required combines full cycle. A disposition of such crucial the impact of raw material and energy are factors. Only specialized companies from refining heavy metals (eg copper) is characterized by attraction to the consumer.
Stages of non-ferrous metals are almost always geographically separated. Semi-industrial location (eg production of alumina in the aluminum industry) are defined raw materials and power? same metal (aluminum) - availability of cheap electricity? RENT - the presence of the consumer.
In recent years geography ferrous metallurgy has changed. Gradually shift was "centers of gravity" of the industry in a country that developing countries. These countries have considerable reserves of raw materials for nonferrous metallurgy, strengthen their own power base and need in nonferrous metals.
Important sector of ferrous metallurgy are the aluminum industry. Aluminium inherent lightness, strength, high conductivity, thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, which can be used almost everywhere. Thanks to these properties aluminum is called "King nonferrous metals.
Raw materials for aluminum production in most countries - bauxite. About 85% of their reserves are concentrated in the weathering crust laterytniy in pryekvatorialniy zone. Most of the bauxite mined in Australia Guinea, Brazil, Jamaica. They, and the U.S., Russia, China, Canada become the world leader in alumina. Russia, the United States have little Bauxite, in Canada they are missing. This production based on imported raw materials.
In Russia's primary aluminum is also nepheline. European countries gradually stop mining bauxite. The role of large exporters Alumina play Australia (1 / 3 of world production), Guinea, Jamaica.
Main source of aluminum is aircraft and rocket engineering, food industry (packaging), electrical (wire).
At the beginning of. largest companies in the aluminum industry is "Alcoa (USA), alkane (Canada)," Peshyne "(France)," Basic Element " (Russia).
The second most important sector of the global non-ferrous metals are copper industry. Copper has good electrical and thermal conductivity. For this industry characterized by territorial division of production stages. The higher stage of processing, the lower its share accounted for by countries developing countries.
In the production of concentrate ores significant role played by country developing countries - Indonesia, China, Philippines in Asia? Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa? Chile, Peru and Mexico in Latin America? Papua New Guinea in Oceania. Among the large developed countries reserves of copper ores have the United States, Canada, Australia and Poland. A copper ore rich Russia and Kazakhstan. These countries also are among the the world's leading copper concentrate.
In addition to these countries (this is not part of Papua New Guinea), large world producers of rough copper (metal content 95%) is also Japan, Germany, and refined copper (metal content 99,9%) - Belgium, South Korea. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo refined copper is produced. The entire draft copper sends it for processing to Belgium.
The main consumers of copper - a field of electrical engineering, electronics. Most developed countries use copper and some developing countries (China, South Korea, Brazil, India). Japan, Germany, USA, China, Brass its own is not enough, because they had import.
Production of zinc and lead have traditionally focused on raw, so their major producers are Australia, China, Canada, USA, Peru and Mexico, which possess the largest reserves of polymetallic ores. The greatest amount of lead and zinc used in developed countries (U.S., Japan, Germany) and some developing countries (in China).
The main area of consumption of zinc is the automotive industry. 60% Lead is also used in the automotive industry, the rest - in chemical.
Production of nickel-developed in Canada (25% of world production) Russia (20%), Australia and New Caledonia. At the end of the twentieth century. these countries joined Cuba, Dominican Republic, Philippines. Basis area is the use of nickel metallurgy - doping and coating alloys.
The largest world producers of tin are the countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America. Most tin is used in manufacturing gesture, but also in electrical engineering and electronics.
Production of silver and gold have largely dispersed. For extraction money back to the XV-XVI centuries. palm won the Latin American countries (Mexico, Peru, Chile, Bolivia). Geography gold mining more. Over 100 years of powerful gold producer is South Africa. Many Gold mined in African countries (eg Ghana) and in Latin America, North America and Australia. Considerable amount of gold mined in Russia and Uzbekistan.
Today much of the gold mined silver Yi not own fields, and along with other metals. Although the bulk of gold provide indigenous deposits (gold lived "), the role of alluvial deposits. Almost 2 / 3 of the silver used in photochemistry, the rest - in electrical engineering, electronics, jewelry industry, as well as production of coins, medals. Most of the gold sent for production of ingots and coins. Significantly smaller amounts of the consumption jewelry industry (about 300 tons per year) and electronics.
Of all the gold, which presently holds humanity (120 000 t), 2 / 3 is Hispanic.
Production of diamonds, other precious and semiprecious stones belongs to ferrous metallurgy. Traditionally, the world leader in diamond is Africa (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo). In the second half of the twentieth century. large-scale diamond mining began USSR (Russia continued), and late twentieth century. - Australia.
Of the 94 million carats of diamonds recovered, more than half is used in production tools (cutting, polishing), the rest - in jewelry industry. Nearly 3 / 4 of diamonds used - artificial. There CUT rich tradition of diamonds in India, the Netherlands, Belgium, Israel.
For the global diamond market characterized by a single buyer - "De Beers (South Africa). Other companies to almazovydobuvni To sell your goods, should enter into the relevant contract.
Engineering World - a leading industry, whose share in value is about 1 / 3 of world industrial output. It largely determines the general directions of scientific and technological progress. End product industry is the equipment (more than 1 million species) for all without the sectors of economy. Mechanical Engineering is also working on meet the needs of individual users.
"Motherland" engineering rightly called the Great Britain. This industry began to thrive here in the late eighteenth century. On early nineteenth century. engineering has been popular in Western Europe (Netherlands, France, Germany) and the U.S. in the late nineteenth century. - In Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, the Russian Empire and the early twentieth century. - Worldwide.
On the placement of mechanical engineering enterprises in various sectors affecting following factors: the level of science, the availability of labor resources (Particularly skilled) resources (construction materials, especially metal), the consumer. Also play a significant role specialization and cooperation.
Since any machine made by assembly (mounting) of large number of parts, machine technology is divided at least two stages: manufacture of parts and komplektatsiynyh assembly of finished products from kompletatsiynyh details. Production komplektatsiynyh modern parts, components and machinery intensive, technologically sophisticated and capable of only developed countries. Make Machine parts can kompletatsiynyh and in the average development. There is enough human resources to use with an average basic education, trained in certain transactions. These factors influenced the spread of machinery in the second half of the twentieth century.
Today, world leaders in the field of engineering is developed country. U.S., Japan, Germany produced almost the entire known range engineering products. Thus the U.S. specializing in the production powerful supercomputers (servers) and aerospace engineering; Japan - sophisticated home appliances, electronics, automobiles, ships, industrial equipment and robotics, Germany - industrial equipment (mainly electrical), automobiles, printing equipment. France, Britain, Italy also produce a large number of engineering products. Recently, world leaders machinery involved in South Korea. Small Western Europe, with minor amounts of engineering products. However, given its high quality, they are able to control large market share. For example, Switzerland is specialized in manufacturing precision machine tools, watches, equipment for mills, Austria produces Mining machinery and equipment pulp and paper industry, Netherlands - Electric equipment; Denmark - industrial refrigerators and sea fishing vessels; Sweden - industrial electrical engineering and automobiles, Finland - floating drilling rigs and mobile phones.
The first region of the developing countries, which appeared engineering, was Latin America. This industry was created here by direct participation of developed countries and was aimed primarily at meet the needs of the region. Currently, the major countries of the region is nearly all known mechanical engineering. In addition, some countries (Mainly Mexico and Brazil) are to increase production for export.
In East and Southeast Asia Development Engineering began only 60 years of the twentieth century. It also created by with developed countries, but it is export oriented. For recent decades, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia become powerful producers of household appliances, electronics, communications, and automobiles and other vehicles. In 80 years of the twentieth century. spread in engineering China, India, Turkey, Iran and "most qualified" African countries - Nigeria, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria.
The level of engineering in a particular country can judged in terms of volumes of export sector (in billion dollars. USA) and the share of industry in the exporting country. World leader in absolute indicators are developed countries. U.S., Germany, Japan - traditionally the largest exporters of engineering products. They go to European countries and Canada. In 80 years of the twentieth century. leaders became South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, in 90 - China, Mexico, Malaysia.
Over the share of exports in leading U.S., European countries (Primarily in Western Europe - Germany, Britain, Sweden, some countries of Central and Eastern Europe - Czech Republic and Hungary). In the 80 years Twentieth century. came in first place Japan. Subsequently, the leaders joined South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines. This explains that in 70 to 80 years in these countries move entire branches of the world engineering.
Engineering and Metalworking
Manufacture of machine tools and metaloobroblyuvalnoho Equipment - a leading global engineering industries, Geography is the last half century has experienced drastic changes. If earlier leaders were countries such as USA, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, then later the U.S. is almost entirely lost to Japan, Taiwan, China. Retained their positions, Germany, Switzerland, Italy. Japan and Germany specialize in manufacturing complex machines and powerful stream lines Switzerland - precision machine tools, Italy, Taiwan, China - other modern machines. The share of exports Machine Tool highest in Switzerland (90%), Taiwan and Germany (2 / 3). The powerful robots and photographic manufacturers are Japan and Sweden.
Among the areas of transport engineering automotive holds a leading position. It emerged in the late nineteenth century. in Europe and then quickly penetrated into the U.S..
Revolution in the automotive industry was the invention and introduction of G. Ford factory of the world's belt (1913). The division of labor on a number of specialized phases allowed to reduce the time of one car from 12.5 hours to 93 minutes, almost 8 times. At the same plant began extensive use of black ink that sohla faster than others.
Japan's success in the global automotive market explain the fact that she staked on the production of economic small cars. By sometimes this fact coincided with the global oil crisis, economy as an important factor in marketing.
In the first half of the twentieth century. U.S. produced 80% of all cars world. In 50 years of the twentieth century. car spread to most European and Latin American countries and in 70 years - to Japan. At the end of the twentieth century. car spread to all regions of the world.
On the verge of XX-XXI century. United States regained leadership in the world automobile industry. Significant volumes of stored Japan Germany, France, Italy, UK, Canada. Surge Car production, South Korea, Spain, Mexico, Brazil. Rapid progress in the automotive industry is going through China and India.
Leads in terms of car sales U.S. market (Year to implement it 16-17 million new cars and about 50 million of these, which were in use), European (14-15 million) and Japanese (4-4,5 million). Rapidly growing Chinese and Indian Automobile markets.
The largest automobile companies in the world: the U.S. 'General Motors (which owns the trademarks or large stakes in companies "Chevrolet", "Pontiac", "Oldsmobil", "Buick", "Cadillac", "Saturn" "Opel / Voukshol", "SAAB-Skanya", "Daewoo motrz") and Ford Motors " ("Mercury", "Lincoln", "Astonn Martin", "Land Rover", "Jaguar" Volvo, Mazda), the German-American Daimler Chrysler (Dodge, "Plymouth", "Jeep, Smart, Mitsubishi Motors, Hyundai Motors, Kia Motors), the German Volkswagen (Audi, SEAT, Skoda, Bentley, "Bugatti", "Lambordzhini") and "BMW" ("Mini", "Rolls Royce"), Japanese Toyota Motors and Honda, the French Renault and Peugeot, as well as Italian "Fiat".
Leader in the global non-military shipbuilding long time occupied by European countries: first, Netherlands, later UK. Even in the middle of the twentieth century. almost 1 / 2 of all ships British stocks left the shipyards (including Glasgow and Belfast). In subsequent years the main center of world shipbuilding moved to East Asia. Today in the shipyards of South Korea and Japan produce over 3 / 4 of world ships. Rapidly increasing production of ships China and Taiwan and European countries, including Britain, Conversely, reducing.
Aviaraketobuduvannya - A strategic perspective and engineering industry. In 30 years of the twentieth century., Before World war leader in the manufacture of aircraft and missiles belonged to Germany. In second half of the twentieth century. its place was occupied by U.S. and USSR. Thus the U.S. successfully mastered the production of the full range aviaraketnoyi equipment - from civilian aircraft and helicopters to powerful ballistic missiles, and the USSR attention has focused on producing military equipment. Now global market share of U.S. civilian aircraft is nearly 60% share a single European company Yevropen eyrbas "uniting capital companies in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy - 40% Russia - about 1%.
Space Center. Kennedy at Cape Canaveral. Florida, USA
The world's biggest companies are American aviaraketobudivnymy Boeing-MacDonell-Douglas "," Lockheed Martin, General deynemiks "," United teknolodzhis "and European" Evropen eyrbas.
For production cars, locomotives (moving trains) allocate U.S., France, Germany, Czech Republic, Japan and Russia. World leaders in the production of tractors and agricultural machinery is developed countries (USA, Germany, France, Japan) and large countries developing countries (India, China, Brazil).
Sectors of the engineering world is energy mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, instrumentation, electrical engineering and electronics. These branches produce the most complex types of equipment. Today world leaders in the manufacture of televisions, radios, audio and recorders, personal computers, mobile phones - East and Southeast Asia, and Latin America Central and Eastern Europe. Most cameras produce Hong Kong, Japan, China, watches - Hong Kong, Japan, Switzerland.
The largest power equipment and industrial electronics made the developed countries. Among large companies are dominant: U.S. 'General Electric, Westinghouse Electric, German Siemens, AEG-Telefunken, Bosch, Japanese Mitsubishi, UK "Marconi," the Netherlands' Philips, a Swiss-Swedish "ACEA-Brown-Boveri. The major companies that manufacture household electrical and electronics, are the same company, and Japanese "Sony", "Matsusita", "Hitachi", "Toshiba", "Shyvaki", "Gee Vee B", "Sharp" "Sanyo", "Sitizen," South Korean "Samsung", "G E", "Daewoo" Italian "Marlon", "Olivetti", French "Tefal and others. Top manufacturers of personal computers - U.S. companies "Interneshenel meshyns business," Intel "," Eypl "," Maykron CARD Technology, "H'yulett pekard", "Epson".
At the present stage one of the most important industries are chemical. At the edge of the XVIII-XIX. produced in the chemical industry bases, acid, soda, ammonia, some types of fertilizers. In the second half Nineteenth century. supplemented their plastics, chemical fibers, rubber-technical products natural rubber. The real flowering of the chemical industry is of the twentieth century. In the early twentieth century. of the global chemical industry production was the basic chemistry (inorganic) in mid-century it changed the chemistry of organic synthesis (including the production of polymer materials), and finally - fine chemicals (pharmaceutical, perfume and cosmetics, household, photochemistry, biochemistry). If initially total production of plastics dominated termoaktyvni Plastics, then later took their place thermoplastics (eg polyethylene), artificial fibers were eventually superseded by synthetic and natural rubber - synthetic.
Now the chemical industry along with mechanical engineering is the "Locomotive" of world scientific and technological progress. It is in this area is no small share of scientific discoveries. Many kinds of chemical products far outstrips in quality of natural analogues successfully replacing them.
The development of chemical technologies and identified the main types used raw materials. First of all it concerns the chemistry of organic synthesis. If mid-twentieth century. basic chemical raw materials for this group of industries was vegetable raw materials and coal, then later they were almost completely superseded oil, natural gas. Under the intensive develop such industries like oil and hazohimiya.
Undisputed leader on the development of chemical industry is developed countries. They not only produce more of all chemical products, but also the current structure. For example, most developed countries produce sulfuric acid and fertilizer less than plastic. By cost of production first in these countries occupy the field fine chemicals.
Due to the large variety of chemicals formed specialization of certain countries in the chemical industry. Of all U.S. tap capable of producing all kinds of chemicals in large quantities. In Japan most developed recreation. Germany is specialized in manufacturing varnishes and paints. France produces synthetic rubber and rubber-technical Products, UK - synthetic detergents, Netherlands - Plastics, Belgium - plastics, inorganic acids and salts, Switzerland and Hungary - pharmaceuticals, Sweden and Norway - Products forest and electrochemistry. However, this does not mean that in countries not listed produce other products. Some "new industrial countries" (South Korea, Taiwan) rapidly increasing production of plastics and fibers. In China, India dominated by products of the basic chemistry. In countries with significant oil and gas (Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Indonesia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Mexico, Venezuela), dominated by products chemistry organic synthesis. Significant amounts production of the basic chemistry keeps Russia.
In terms of production and export of native sulfur in leading positions world are USA, Mexico. Most of producing sulfur from the gas condensate France and Canada. Most phosphate is extracted and U.S. exports, Morocco (1 / 3 of world exports), Algeria, Tunisia, apatite - Russia, potassium salt - Canada, USA, Russia, Germany.
The volume of sulfuric acid, caustic soda and soda traditionally leading developed countries (USA, Japan, France, Germany), large developing countries (China, India, Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia) and Russia.
The greatest amount of mineral fertilizers (in terms of active matter) produced in developed countries and Russia, as well as in countries the developing populations (China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan). These same countries have taken the course to facilitate the production of mineral fertilizers, because the charge to provide themselves own foodstuffs.
In terms of plastics, chemical fibers, synthetic rubber and plastics products traditionally lead the U.S., Japan and European countries. In 80-90-years of the twentieth century. They were joined in South Korea, Taiwan and large developing countries. The structure plastic production over 9 / 10 falls on thermoplastic, the structure production of chemical fiber - almost 91% of synthetic fibers.
The world's largest chemical companies that produced basic chemistry and organic synthesis chemistry, is an American "where DuPont Nemur "," Union karbayd "," Dow kemikekl "," Monsanto ", British "Interneshenel kemikekl Industries", the German BASF, Baeyr " Franco-German Aventis, Italian Montedison.
The larger the company the production of tires and rubber articles - American "Goodyear Rubber Taira End", "Bridzhstoun, French "Michelin", Italian "Pirelli", British "Dunlop." By volume production of fine chemicals and cosmetics palm championship is owned by Procter & Gembel "," End Johnson Johnson, "Colgate-Palmolive (USA), Benkizer" (Germany, Italy, USA), Henkel (Germany), Kassans (UK). Most pharmaceutical producing drugs company Pfizer, "Bristol Myers Skvibb", "Ah CNN farmasyutikels "," rank Plough "," Iesen-Silah "(USA)," Roche " (Switzerland), Bayer (Germany), Sanofi (France), Smith Kline Hlekso " (UK), products of photochemistry - Eastman Kodak (USA), Fuji, Konica Minolta-"(Japan).
Forest and woodworking industry - One of the oldest branches. Since people do wood homes, manufactured items Life means of transportation. With the development of science and technology of wood gave way to other construction materials - metal, plastic, because of its scope considerably narrowed. Today the tree produced building materials, furniture, paper, cardboard, some chemical drugs and household items.
In the second half of the twentieth century. Forest industry under the influence scientific and technological progress has changed significantly: increase took place product quality, reduce its cost.
These days, with 1 m? produce more wood products than before and reduced waste. Geography has changed industry. Earlier harvesting and wood processing are concentrated in developed countries or in the northern forest belt, in the last quarter of the twentieth century. more than half of the wood were to provide territory of developing countries or in the southern forest zone. Under a change in raw materials: typical for developed countries mostly coniferous forests, and for developing countries - platyphyllous. In globalizing world economy international companies moved much of its manufacturing base in rich forest resources of the country, developing countries. But at the present stage for the forest industry this characteristic pattern: the higher the degree of processing of wood, the larger the share of developed countries in the market. This means that countries that developing countries have become suppliers of raw materials only, not the manufacturers the final product.
Now the world are storing about 3.3 billion m? wood. This more than 1 / 2 is used as fuel (firewood). The rest - industrial wood, that comes to recycling. The depth of wood processing in different countries Divers. In the U.S., Canada and most European countries, Japan close to 100%. That is, from 1 m? raw wood made about 1 m? useful products. For most developing countries, this Score ranges from 20-30%. At the same time: one part harvested timber is wood and the other almost completely in exporting developed countries, where it is processed. For example, Japanese companies engaged in harvesting timber in Southeast Asia, usually plucked from the tree roots. At the processing is all tree - roots, slash.
To increase the efficiency of the bulk timber storing in those regions where there is its quick recovery. In developed countries - is primarily a temperate maritime climate: northeast and northwest USA, southwest of Canada, all North Europe. In developing countries, storing timber in the humid zone of equatorial evergreen forests (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, South Nigeria Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia).
The volume of timber retain the leading position other developed countries (USA, Canada, Sweden, Finland, Germany, France, Japan) and Russia. In recent years significantly increased Lumber production in some developing countries (China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Chile).
Woodworking small European countries narrowly Specialized in the production of individual products. For example, in terms manufacture of plywood and fibreboard leading places in the world are countries such as Austria, Portugal. The largest in the world producing developed countries. Even half a century ago they made only of entire boards, now - with a chipboard (DSP). To produce expensive luxury furniture boards covering layer of natural wood (veneer) thickness of 2-3 mm. About 4 / 5 furniture veneer with valuable tropical wood on the world market supplies Brazil. Deep traditions furniture remained in Italy. Furniture high quality of its own wood (beech, hornbeam) produces Romania.
The most important forest products industry is cellulose, paper and board. The volume of paper leading places in the world traditionally developed countries (USA, Japan, Canada, Germany, Nordic countries). Rapidly increasing volumes of paper some developing countries (China, Brazil, India, Mexico). In China, much of the paper produced from rice straw. In the Brazilian Amazon, in the mouth, the heat, operates a powerful floating Pulp and Paper Mill, built in Japan.
The volume of paper per capita world leaders are Nordic countries, Canada, Austria. Thus Canada specializes in the manufacture of newsprint, Finland, Sweden, Norway - the office. In all developed countries produce a lot wrapping paper.
The main products are dendrochemistry charcoal HYDROLIZED alcohol, turpentine, fodder yeast. Activation of harvesting tropical wood affected the formation of such areas as collecting resin, wax, some types of oils.
Light industry - a set of industries, enterprises are produced consumer items. It belongs to the oldest industries.
Key areas of light industry:
Manufacture of textile fibers, leather and fur animals for the production Clothing man mastered long ago. Over time, new types were used raw materials (chemical fibers, artificial leather), the production gradually influenced fashion, improved product quality. A change in organizational light industrial structure: if previously manufactured clothing and footwear small shops, now mostly work by large companies. Important role played by fashion houses began to develop new models of clothes and shoes, then reproduce large companies. In the second half of the twentieth century. much of the productive base of these companies has shifted from developed countries to tap the developing world, ie, closer to raw materials and cheap workforce. In developed countries produce elite and expensive products.
Great fashion centers are traditionally Paris, Milan, London, New York.
The leading branch of the global textile industry is cotton, followed - silk, wool, flax, hemp, jute. Of the total number of textile raw materials used, about 2 / 3 cotton accounted for 1 / 5 - on chemical fiber (mostly - synthetic), 1 / 10 - on wool, a little more than 1,5% - by flax dovhunets.
The modern factory producing synthetic fibers
In the first half of the twentieth century. world leaders in manufacturing of all kinds fabrics were developed countries, as well as China, India, USSR. In the second half of the twentieth century. much of the textile industry moved to developing countries. The production of cotton, silk, wool fabrics dramatically increased the position of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, countries Southeast Asia, Pakistan, Turkey, Brazil, Mexico, Syria, Egypt, Colombia. In developed countries, by contrast, production of fabrics falling. In this regard, regions have experienced a deep crisis these countries, which traditionally had a high level of textile industry. Of all the industries only hemp-jute, as a whole focused on raw materials, has maintained its territorial structure. The largest linen manufacturing in Russia and other European countries (France, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine) jute - in India and Bangladesh.
The structure of the tissue types are usually dominated by cotton, but in the U.S., Japan, South Korea - silk. The whole world famous for its thin cloth (high-quality woolen fabrics) UK, Italy, Belgium, lace - Belgium, Germany, France, curtains - Germany.
Currently, the vast majority of businesses garment industry shifted from developed countries in developing countries where produce the bulk laundry, clothing, carpets.
Factories tailoring closely related co-operation with major number of enterprises in various sectors of agriculture, industry, services. Yes, the new model can be developed in jeans New York, the fabric produced in Pakistan, and its cutting and sewing be carried out in Malta. For this reason, a significant number of tropical countries - Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Pakistan - is world's leading manufacturers of winter outerwear.
Changing the spatial differentiation of the global textile and apparel industry in the second half of the twentieth century. identified the main trends With the global trade in textiles.
The largest exporters of textile products were Asian countries, lesser extent - the European countries and U.S. importers - the developed countries and especially the United States. U.S. exports mainly textile raw materials (1 / 3 world exports of cotton fiber), and importing finished products Hong Kong and Taiwan.
The gradual movement from developed countries in developing countries, experienced and shoe-leather. If the first half of the twentieth century. the vast majority of shoes made in Italy, USA, France, Germany, Great Britain, in recent decades, only Italy retained its position (350-360 million pairs per year). The rest of the country has given way China (over 500 thousand pairs), India, Brazil (200 million pairs), Spain, Portugal and Poland.
Most of shoes produced per capita in Italy and the Czech Republic (6 pairs per person per year). In Italy, almost half of the shoes made shallow private workshops, which are used mostly manual labor. Except that Italy is specialized in producing soles.
A large world exporters of shoes are Italy, Brazil, importers - the U.S., Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain.
Today the fur industry is experiencing a downturn. This is due to significantly increasing the protection of wildlife movement. For this reason and for reduction of finished products most modern fur made of fur animals, grown in cages.
Large suppliers to the world market mink skins are Finland, chornoburky - Denmark, ordinary fur - Greece, fur High Quality - Italy, Russia, Canada.
With sheepskin products, including coats, famous for country Developed sheep - Spain, Italy, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, Uruguay.