§ 16 The world economy during the STC, the impact on industry structure and territorial organization of production.
Decisive influence on the world economy over the entire history had technological progress (NTP)- Constant dynamic process of improvement of technology and engineering. Time since there acceleration inside it the appearance of innovations. This period is called science and technology (RTD) - qualitative leap in technology development and technology. STC revolution leads to Quick update range of products, its improvement, growth of modern industry.
Total in its history, humanity has survived three STC. The first coincided on time with the English Industrial Revolution and was characterized by wide implementation in all spheres of economic activity steam engine, second was due to replacement of its electric motor, and third - the emergence and active use of computer technology.
Tab. Comparison of the three STC
|Characteristic||The technological revolution|
|Industrial||Technical||Science and Technology|
|Duration||Mid-seventeenth century - the middle nineteenth century||Mid-nineteenth century. - Mid-century||Mid-twentieth century. - For now|
|Type of production||Old||New||Newest|
|The main types of energy||Steam||Electrical||Nuclear|
|The main types of machines (characters)||Steam engine||Electromotor||Computers and nuclear|
|Place the early development||Great Britain||U.S. and Germany||U.S., Western Europe, Japan|
Science in the era of NTR forms extensive areas of human activity; scientists in the world - 5-6 million people, ie 9 / 10 scholars ever lived on Earth - our contemporaries.
STC has four main components: science, engineering and technology, production and management
World economy is now on the influence of the third (modern) scientific and technological revolution, which has such characteristics:
In the development of the modern world economy increasingly role Science, which became a kind of discovery production, locomotive development of techniques and technologies. It requires significant investments, extensive academic training. A society that cares about its Development and Welfare, invests heavily in research, modernization of education, training of higher qualification. The proven success in this field are Japan, USA, UK, Germany and France.
Potential form of territorial organization of scientific and production complexes were polis - deliberately shaped area of activity, which combine interacting research institutes, universities and science-based industrial enterprise.
Computerization, elektronizatsiya, automation of production processes promotes the redistribution of labor resources by industry sector. Decreasing the number of employed in material production increases proportion of intangibles in the area - servicing banking and financial institutions, education, science.
NTR affects the territorial organization of production, distribution of productive forces. Extensive path of economic development through development of new lands, construction of new enterprises, replacing intenseWhich provides high-quality renovation of existing enterprises, new approaches to the use of existing areas.
Changing role of factors that influence the allocation of production.
World economy is in constant evolution.
Sectoral and territorial structure of the world economy.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Branch structure - A set of related groups of industries that produce homogeneous products provide a rich services and carry out Public Benefit Activities of various kinds.
Industry sector - A set of enterprises, institutions and establishments that produce homogeneous products and meet the uniform requirements.
Modern industrial structure includes some of the world economy hundreds of different industries, which are combined in dozens of areas. On higher, or macro known in all branches of the world today economy together in two global areas: material production and non-productive. The first produces material goods, or goods, the second - intangible, or services. On average, a level or branch uniting all five different areas (Table).
Tab. Areas and types of economic activity
|Scope of the world economy||Business Activity|
|Material||Primary||Agriculture and forestry, mining, fishing|
|Recycled||Manufacturing industry, construction|
|Quaternary||Research, information management|
The primary sector considered such that as close to nature and does not require high educational level and qualifications. Secondary field of primary production processes, proposing higher requirements for skills and intellectual abilities of staff. Tertiary "Builds" on primary and secondary, as each serves them. Workers employed in it must have friendly, pryvitlyvistyu, helpfulness, combined with speed and accuracy. Quaternary "grows" with tertiary and maintains close ties with primary and secondary. An employee in this area has a higher education and the highest qualification. P'yaterynna field completes the range of many various types of business. Its mission - to ensure continuity, the most effective and balanced work of others areas. Employees engaged in the tertiary sector, called "blue collar workers in the Quaternary - "white" in pyaterynniy - "gold".
For a modern industrial structure of the global economy is characterized the relationship between different sectors and spheres of economic activity. In agriculture produced 1 / 20 value world gross product (AMS), and it employs about? World EAH. The share of industry in the AIST is 1 / 3, and EAH - 1 / 5 share sector Service - under 3 / 5 and 1 / 3. So, in the modern economy Dominating AEP share made in the service sector because its products are most expensive. Thus most of the labor force is concentrated in agriculture economy, because of the prevalence of type Agricultural Economics large number of developing countries.
The distribution of particles between these sectors and areas in different groups of countries the world is different. In the countries of the Centre in the GDP prevails share of services that meets the post-industrial stage of development their economies. In countries Napivperyferiyi in the GDP and the share of EAH service below, with the industry in the GDP more than 3 times greater than agriculture, and in the structure EAH - behind him. This is a high level of industry compared with agriculture, is responsible industrial stage of development. In countries Peripheries share of services relatively small industry in the GDP is not much higher than agriculture, and in the structure of the ESA - is after him in 2,5 times. These characteristics are caused by low levels of economic development of these countries with a clear predominance in their agricultural sectors that corresponds to pre-industrial stage of development.
Therefore, all national economies in industrial structure can be divided into three types: pre-industrial, industrial; postindustrial.
In the sectoral structure of world industrial production leads Engineering (part 1 / 3), in second place - the chemical industry, third food reserves. However, in more developed countries high proportion of engineering and industries that produce high degree of processing, and a small percentage of mining, light and food industry. In developing countries, the share of mining slightly less manufacturing industry. Within the last parity retain engineering, food and chemical industries.
The territorial structure of world economy - A accommodation sectors of the economy of countries, regions, continents. Important parameters that characterize the country's place in world the economy is gross domestic product (GDP) and gross national product (GDP), GDP per capita, number of economically active population, the rate of specialization. According to these indexes and means for the role and place in the world economy, countries in differentiating three groups: the "Center", "Napivperyferiyu", "periphery". In the countries of the Centre World Economy GDP per capita exceeds $ 10 000. per year, Napivperyferiyi countries ranges from 500 to 10 000 dol.na year, and Peripheries countries less than 500 dollars. The countries "Center" are almost all wealthy developed countries and developing countries - Finance surplus countries - exporters of oil. Napivperyferiyu form the country average level of development. This is the most numerous group, comprising includes most developing countries, a second-socialist countries. Peripherals represented the poorest countries.
The territorial structure of the world economy developed during the long period. In the nineteenth century. on all parameters extracted Europe, ie world economy was monocentric character. In the twentieth century. appeared one center of the world economy - the U.S., which soon took the lead position. After the Second World War, large commercial centers are China, Japan, Canada, India, Mexico, Brazil, and now - new industrialized countries (NICs) - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong Singapore.
Currently formed polycentric model of world economy following centers: North American, whose core is the U.S. economy with economies of Canada, Mexico Yi, European, whose core is the economy EU countries led by Germany, the Asia-Pacific, integration which formed the core of Japan, China, and "Far Eastern tigers.
The process of forming the poles of economic growth continues. The perspective is regions of Northern Eurasia, South America, Australia and New Zealand.