§ 11. Geo-environment as an area of interaction between society and nature. (textbook)

Theme 3. The interaction between society and nature. The world's natural resources

For the study themes you find:

  • features of interaction between society and nature;
  • main types of natural resources;
  • patterns of different types of natural resources
  • resursozabezpechenosti ratio in some regions or countries
  • concepts: the geography and environment, antroposfera, Nature, resursozabezpechenist.

§ 11. Geo-environment as an area of interaction between society and nature.



  1. What is meant by the concepts of "geographic shell", "geographical environment"?
  2. What does human impact on the geographical environment in the territory of Ukraine?
  3. What kind of commercial activity carried out most impact on the geographical environment?

Geographical environment.

Throughout history, mankind actively mastered Geographic shell, and used vydozminyuvalo nature, creating an environment  his residence - geographical environment. Geo-environment- Part of geographic shell, which directly interact nature and man. Geographical environment - a prerequisite for of society, a source of basic resources. Its development becomes more intense due to the development of science, engineering and technology. Current level of development of productive forces allowed a person to learn more  of the earth's surface, deep in the bowels ponyknuty and closest space. More than 70% of the Earth under the influence of customized commercial activity. Instead of natural landscapes come anthropogenic. This agricultural fields, gardens, cultivated meadows forests planted by man, reservoirs, quarries, industrial dumps, piles, industrial landscapes and settlements, etc..

Prevalent in many regions of South Asia terasuvannya slope reduces soil erosion and creates a comfortable area for farming

Human activity was extended to the formerly inaccessible areas with extreme natural conditions - tropical and Arctic and Antarctic Desert evergreen humid equatorial forests of Amazonia, high- areas.

Glossary of Terms and Concepts

Geographic cover - Global natural complex, which is a result of the interaction and interpenetration lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. It covers the lower part height of 10-12 km of the atmosphere and the upper part of lithosphere depth to 4-5 km.

Anthropogenic Landscapes - A relatively homogenous area geographical environment with its combination of natural components and phenomena that has been transformed by human activities.

Cultural Landscape - Our strong man made profitable from the standpoint of human society.

Wind generators

Active interaction with nature is in the form of a sort metabolism and energy. Mankind, extracting from nature all necessary  him to maintain life and production, returns back to nature of the waste. This interchange, usually leads to depletion Nature and pollution.

When pollution understand his unwanted changes properties as a result of receipt of various substances, radioactive radiation and heat. Pollution in most cases is human nature, although sometimes it may cause spontaneous natural phenomena - earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, spreading pathogens.


Anthropogenic pollution may be associated with falling into environment in excessive amounts of chemicals and their compounds, radioactive elements and the increase in radioactive radiation, uncontrolled release of heat, increased noise and vibration, high luminosity, which leads to violation biological rhythms, the emergence of new germs and viruses, the development biological weapons and so on.

All contaminated shell of the Earth. Even in outer space around the planet accumulated significant amounts of dust, dirt, debris  spacecraft and satellites. Sial due to contaminated receiving industrial and agricultural wastes that contain metals, their compounds, fertilizers, pesticides, organic compounds. Urgent problem is disposal of household and industrial waste, land restoration, distorted by the Construction roads, the laying of communications, mining. Pollution hydrosphere by dumping polluted water and heated leads to regime change, reducing the oxygen in the water, causing disease  microorganisms. Major Pollutants hydrosphere - black and color metallurgy, chemical, pulp and paper industry, some industry food industry, agriculture, and communal service. Sawing smallest aerosols and various gases excessive carbon dioxide emissions lead to air pollution. As a result generated "greenhouse effect, acid rain, reduction ozone layer. Sources of pollution - metallurgy, chemical , thermal power, transport.

As the UN Environment Program, mankind has created or opened over 7 million annually to the chemicals and the list included several thousand new.

The modern world is faced with the problem of degradation of ecological systems, gradual depletion of natural resources that affect the welfare people threatened the very existence of man on Earth. At the time of settlement problems of harmonious coexistence of man and nature, view consumer philosophy of human existence. The more we rely on technologies that provide new opportunities for processing of natural resources the needs of people, the less our respect for nature. Keep Earth - it also means wise, in her boss used to She served for many long generations to come. Prosperity of nations and  nations concerned with their ability to produce new products and technologies that contribute to economic progress without environmental destruction.