§ 10. The social structure of the population. Manpower.
People almost never included in social interaction directly. It is always a certain group interests and norms behavior which influence it. Because society is made up of these groups. Therefore, to understand the social processes that occur to analyze society within social structure.
The social structure of population - A system different types of communities (class, property, professional, territorial) and stable and orderly relations between them. Social class- A large body of people with relatives living standards, values, interests, education, social status. As a rule, produce higher middle and lower class.
Some researchers define social groups (classes) based on income economic status, profession or occupation, and education. Others include to certain class, a group of people who themselves are admitted to them regardless of socio-economic indicators which determine their social position.
All men are born equal, regardless of their gender, racial, ethnic characteristics. In the process of coexistence in the social space with other individuals, and revealing their samorealizuyuchys talents of individual efforts, according to what benefits it brings to society deserves to move in a more preferred group. Social inequality leads to the creation of the "social ladder", by where people are moving up, securing, their children all the best living conditions and increasing opportunities, or down where these opportunities narrowed.
Type of social structure reflects the nature of socio-economic system of society. For developed countries characterized by social structure in which the highest grade of approximately 10-15% of total population, the middle class - 60-80%, lower class - 15-20%. A certain portion lower class of unemployed, homeless, seasonal workers. Given the size of the middle group and its stabilizing effect on society, civilization developed countries (Western civilization) is sometimes more called "the civilization of the middle class." Signs of the middle class include the availability of property as property acquired or existing as a source of income, highly educated, middle income country, professional activity that has a high prestige in society. Interests middle-class dominated society in developed countries oppose desire to further enrich the richest and sweeping compensate encroachment of the poorest to change social structures of society.
For developing countries, characterized by social structure society, which accounts for a higher class of 1-3% of total population average - 5-7% lower - 90%.
In today's open society, a factor that affects improve the human place in society, is education. Having a higher level education, worker raises his professional qualifications, can perform more complex and responsible work, and this gives him reason to receive higher compensation for the work permit to take power management solutions, provides the opportunity to use certain privileges.
Rice fields. Vietnam
Human Resources - Part of the population that has physical and spiritual abilities, general and professional knowledge, skills to participate in production. Sometimes they are divided into basic, consisting which is serviceable part of the population, and additional manpower (Teenagers and retired people who work).
Each country has its own criteria for determining age human resources in many countries they are generally not identified. Such differences associated with different life expectancy in different countries and possibilities of the state to make pensions. By UN statistics to include workforce population of 15 to 64 years.
The degree of involvement of labor in socially useful activity index shows economically active population. Economically active population- Is part of the population employed and socially useful work has from this income. Go to the economically active population refers not only those who work, but also those unemployed who are actively seeking work.
The absolute number of global human resources at the beginning of the XXI century. amounts to 3 billion 800 million people, or 61% of world population. Number economically active population was under about 3 billion people or about 50% of the population or about 79% of the total number of labor resources., including the fate of women is in it 40 %. In absolute terms, the economically active population in the lead China, India, USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Russia. For most developed proportion of economically active population ranges from 50-55%. The number of unemployed was estimated at various sources from 300 to 500 million people.
Populations in developing countries. to find work, not lack of qualifications, and often it is simply illiterate. Total number of illiterate population in the world is more than 15%, and this almost 900 million people. 90% illiterate - residents of countries that developing countries. The largest number of illiterate in the country falls South Africa and tropical Asia. More than 2 / 3 of the illiterate - are women. In many countries, especially Muslim women were not allowed participate in social production. Therefore, the proportion of women in economic active population in developing countries is lower than the share of men and in developed countries, the opposite - higher. Lowest percentage of women in the economically active population characteristic of oil-producing countries Gulf - no more than 20%. For developing countries, especially poorest, is characterized by the participation of children aged 10 to 14 years social production. At the beginning of. 14% of children in the world - worked. The highest numbers of working children - 50% - in poor African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Burundi).
Queuing for the Employment
Structure of employment linked to the level developing country GDP, the structure of its economy, the level of development of individual industries, the settlements, and traditions and political conditions.In developing countries, with a small income to 61% of employed population works in agriculture, mainly on family areas. In non-agricultural activities in rural areas occupied 22% and 15% of workers working in cities. In industrial-agricultural country with an average income 29% work in agriculture, 18% engaged in non-agricultural activities in rural areas, 46% work in the cities of the industry and the services.
Employment in agriculture, forestry and fisheries
Women carry firewood. China
In developed countries with high income of 4% works agriculture, 27% - in industry, 60% - in the service. The number employed in agriculture in developed countries steadily declining in the UK is only 1% in the USA - 2% in Japan and France - about 3%. Share of employment in industry highest in the industrialized countries. The share of services including trading, transport, communications, finance and public administration, education, culture, science, household services and leisure, is growing and today is for the most developed countries over 70%.
Employment in industrial sectors of the economy
Employment in service sectors of the economy
In general, the world distribution of employed population is: 48% employed in agriculture and forestry, fishing, 17% - in industry and construction 35% - other industries. About half world population that works, composed of persons engaged in home economy - not salaried workers. Among the most family businesses common farm.
That indices of human resources of the economically active population, employment structure is important for economic planning developing countries.