§ 7. Population. Demographic processes and population policy. (textbook)

Topic 2. World population

§ 7. The population of the world.

For the study themes you find:

  • population of the world and individual countries;
  • How does the world population by region;
  • existing types of population reproduction;
  • particular age and sex composition of population;
  • rates, levels and forms of urbanization of countries and regions;
  • main directions of migration flows;
  • employment structure and its differences by region;
  • get acquainted with the largest nations and the most common languages, and world religions.
Remember

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  1. What science studies the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the population?
  2. What are the processes influencing the population?
  3. What are the factors influencing the population of Ukraine?


The world's population.

Population (population) - Natural history emerged and continuously samovidnovlyuvana during playback direct life bunch of people, the main component of human society.

The population of any territory or country by engaging in interaction with environment, acts on the one hand the power that creates wealth, on the other - which consumes them. Therefore socio-economic science is very important with the basic knowledge indicators of population size, its geography, structure and dynamics of change. Population studies a number of science - Geography of Population, etnoheohrafiya, demography.

According to statistical data on the territory of living Earth Over 6.8 billion people. The largest population of the world is  China (1.3 billion people), India (1.1 billion), USA (307 million), Indonesia (240 million), Brazil (198 million).

Dynamics of change of the world population was different throughout history  humanity. Since the appearance of man on Earth for many thousands of population growth was negligible, then began to rise and now  again decreases.

The first "population explosion" is on the seventeenth-nineteenth century. When World population reaches through the Industrial Revolution in 1830  by one billion people. In subsequent years the pace of population growth increases conditional on the increase and decrease in fertility mortality in industrialized countries of Europe and North America. After 100 years the Earth's population doubled and amounted to 2 billion people in 30 years (60 years of the twentieth century.) - tripled (3 billion people) and in 1975 - grew to 4 billion people. At the beginning of. multiplicity of the population was over 6 billion people.

The largest growth rate of world population in the history of mankind fall to 60-years of the twentieth century. - The second "population explosion". Through traditionally high birth rate and reducing mortality due to development of medicine and quality of life in Latin America and Asia,  developing an average annual population growth exceeded 3%.

At the beginning of. serednosvitovi population growth rates were  1,4 ‰, among this in Africa - 2,6 ‰, Asia and Latin America - 1.5 Step 2 ‰, in Europe - 0,3 ‰.

According to the UN by 2025 the world population will reach 8.3 billion people and by the end of the XXI century. stabilized at around 10? 12 billion

Natural movement of population. The population is influenced  Vital (play) - fertility and population processes mortality. Natural movement makes continuous process of change of generations and population recovery. In order to be able to compare the rates of such  play in countries that differ in population,  calculate the average birth and death rates for 1000 persons per year (ppm -% 0). The difference between fertility rates and death called natural growth. Ratio of natural increase  can have positive, negative or zero value, indicating increase, decrease or invariance of the population.

Natural population growth

Different stages of human development characterized by certain features of historical Reproduction.  Natural movement of population depends on the socio-economic factors particular type of economic model of society. The theory that explains interdependence between the phases of development of world economy (Pryvlasnyuvalne, agricultural, industrial, postindustrial management) and demographic processes (fertility, mortality, natural increase), was named demographic transition theory.

Stage pryvlasnyuvalnoho economy characterized by domination birth at the biological maximum, but low level development of medicine, problems with food supplies, war also contributed to high mortality. Therefore, these indexes were balanced and  sometimes even death prevailed. This type of population reproduction called traditional.

Agrarian society, which characterized by numerous family, which is the main producer of wealth, combined with advances medicine helps significant increase in fertility and population growth - boomers. This play is called population advanced.

In the era of industrialization, the family loses its major economic role level: it does not define bahatochyselnist commercial success. Economic importance individual personality traits of man - education, entrepreneurship, creativity. The growing population slows down, low birth offset low mortality. This type of reproduction is called simple.

Society in the era of post-industrial economy characterized by  welfare, increased cultural development of health  that helps to reduce mortality and increase in expectancy life. Such processes lead to aging. Representation of women in social production and growth costs education and child development help reduce fertility. Natural reduced growth in some countries mortality rates exceed birth, there depopulation - The natural population decline. This type of reproduction is called diminished.

In the modern world the level of socio-economic development of countries is different, they are at different stages of demographic transition and dissimilar demographics.

According to today Historically Two types of population reproduction (Processes of generations).

For the first type of reproduction (On the theory demographic transition are appropriate and easy and narrowed type reproduction) characterized by low fertility rates and mortality significant life, each family usually one or two children. He typical of developed countries.

The second type of reproduction characteristic of countries developing countries. Typical for it are high fertility rates (25-40 ‰), mortality (7-14 ‰), low life expectancy (on the theory demographic transition it corresponds to extended reproduction).

For the implications on the reproduction of state may conduct demographic policy - A system of administrative, economic, propaganda activities aimed at changing the birth rate in the desired direction.

Most of the second type of play engaged in policy containment and reduction of child birth (up to 5 years) mortality.  In many countries, legislation increasing the age of marriage, promote the benefits maloditnoyi family. This seven pits state provides a number of benefits.

The greatest successes in this policy have made China and India. In China population policy has a motto: "One family - one child", "Chinese - people without siblings. The country has established State Committee family planning, set higher age limits for entry into marriage. Thus, the limit for women 22 years for men - 24. Odnoditni family using a number of benefits: allowance, free medical care, access to education. In India has a slogan: "We are two - we two."

However, not all developing countries, conduct demographic policy. Muslim countries do not interfere with natural processes Reproduction, guided by religious morality, and Africa - due to lack of material means.

Most other problems in developed countries. Fertility in these generally low, and therefore the population is growing slowly.  There is a problem of scarcity of human resources. In connection with this country pursue policies aimed at increasing the birth rate: single Payment Suite, government assistance at birth, monthly payments for children, benefits, loans for large families and more.

In general the world community seeks to control the number of population on the planet in order to prevent aggravation of the political, demographic, socio-economic situation on the planet.