Africa (compendium)

On the African continent is 58 countries and territories. In the past, almost all of which were colonies of European countries. In 50-70-x gg Twentieth century. majority of the continent became independent in 80-90-x gg Zimbabwe got independence and Namibia. Remain dependent on. St. Helena (UK), Fr. Reunion (France), Ceuta and Melilla (Spain), Western Sahara (Morocco) and others. Most countries of the continent, becoming sovereign states, actually remained dependent on its former parent.

African continent has been and remains the least developed region of the world, it's called mainland backwardness, agricultural raw materials periphery of the world. All mainland states except South Africa, belong to developing countries. For most of them characterized by economic and political instability, the narrow specialization of the economy, low overall development, poverty and low life expectancy. 33 of 47 least developed countries in Africa. However, some countries have managed the continent by exporting raw materials to achieve very high figures of GDP. Yes, in Libya, 90% of revenues from foreign trade allow extraction and processing of oil; to Algeria is a leading oil and natural gas, phosphates and metal ores. Main export items are cotton and Egyptian oil. In cotton producing country ranks first in Africa, and the production of high quality cotton dovhovoloknystoho - first place in the world. Lanpermit access role in the economy of Egypt plays opened in 1869 Suez Canal, through which one of the most important sea routes from the Mediterranean Sea into the Indian Ocean, there are considerable state revenues from tourism. Mauritius Island in the Seychelles and the main source of income is tourism.

elsewhere in the region dominated by agriculture, which employs 60 to 80% of the working population. However, low productivity and extensive nature of agriculture only 2 / 3 provides local food requirements. In some developed countries farm export plantations towards monocropping of specialization. Export of cocoa beans are allocated Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Nigeria, peanuts - Senegal, Niger and Gambia, palm oil - Nigeria, coffee - Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, vanilla - Madagascar, dates - Kenya Tanzania.

Livestock in the region has extensive character. Most developed cattle breeding (buffalo, mules, humpback zebu) verblyudyarstvo and sheep, whose products (except for wool and leather) is used for own needs. Most animals used as Tyaglova force.

Africa is divided into two subregions: North Africa and tropical Africa (south of the Sahara to South Africa), or into five regions: Northern, Western, Eastern Equatorial and South Africa.

tropical Africa - the most backward part in the group of countries, developing countries. This is the least urbanized region in the world. North Africa - the more developed region due to geographical location and availability of minerals.

South Africa (formerly South Africa), as migration of capitalism, was formed in 1910 Country - rich in minerals. With the exception of oil, natural gas and bauxite, it has all the mineral resources that are exported to more than 80 countries. PA is a leader in world stocks and gold mining, diamonds, manganese, chrome and manganese ore, platinum group metals, asbestos, antimony, uranium ores. The share of manufacturing in GDP is 25%. In a country dominated by light industry, but there is a significant proportion of metallurgy, machine building and metal processing, chemical industry. Is developing and acquired high-tech industry - military and production of nuclear reactors. Another important area is the Witwatersrand mining - the main area of extraction of gold and uranium. The largest industrial center of the country - Johannesburg and the capital - Pretoria. In the same province, near Kimberley youextract diamonds. Transnational diamond-mining concern De Beers controls the world diamond market.