Nature (compendium)

Conservation - a complex of international, governmental and public activities aimed at conservation, sustainable use and restoration of natural resources, including on the conservation of species diversity (genetic) flora and fauna of the Earth and its subsoil, water, air and, consequently, to preserve natural conditions of human society.

For conservation measures are implemented:

  • establishment of protected areas;
  • regulation of natural resources;
  • protect the natural environment (water protection measures, land reclamation, regulation of runoff, reducing volume of waste water and its purification, etc.);
  • independent ecological examination of projects and impact assessment of economic activity on the environment;
  • monitoring of the environment (from regional to global monitoring of the biosphere).

This map gives an idea of the proportion of protected areas in the world (relative to total area). Conservation areas, depending on the purpose, features and conservation status sizes are divided into reserves, national parks, reserves, monuments and other protected areas. Total area of protected areas in the world is over 5% of the land. The most common in the world are national parks, preserves and reserves.

Reserves - this site is land or water areas permanently withdrawn from economic use, their main purpose - to serve as a model of nature.

Reserve - a territory which for many years in certain seasons or year round are protected animals, plants or natural part of the complex.

National Parks - the most common form of protected areas, which are characterized by a mass admission of visitors to some of the territory.

the greatest area of environmental protection facilities in the world are Greenland National Park (7 million hectares), Central Kalaharskyy Reserve in Botswana, Africa (5.3 million hectares), Grand Reserve Hobiyskyy in Mongolia, the National Park Great Victoria Desert in Australia and others. Ukraine is the largest reserve in the Danube Delta.

In developing countries the share of protected areas is somewhat less than in developed, but it is growing that national parks are quite profitable. However, the creation of national parks in Africa, Asia, Latin America is hampered need resettlement of nomadic tribes and reduce the habitats of their economic activities (hunting, farming). During armed conflict, the territory of national parks are often the scene of clashes for the warring parties. And for the poachers, these territories are often subject to illegal trade. In the world there exist many international and environmental organizations. Among them one of the most famous - World Wildlife Fund . The Fund operates in over 90 countries and has a significant impact on environmental policy and promotes environmental programs.