Transportation. The network of international communication (compendium)

Transport - an important component of the economy of any country. It is the foundation of the international geographical division of labor, which provides production and non economy and population needs in all kinds of transportation.

main technical and economic indicators of transport are in traffic, loads (the product of the volume of traffic on the distance) passenger, speed, labor /, the cost of transport routes capacity, mobility, dependence on weather and seasonal changes. Different types of transport have their advantages and disadvantages, so use them depending on specific conditions.

main modes of transport are: land (rail, road), water (sea, river, lake) and others (pipe, air , e).

Railway operates in 160 countries, ranking second highest loads (after the sea) and passenger (after the car). Railways reflects the economic situation of the country. With the growing economy and increasing freight increasing speed and intensity of trains. With the electrification of roads increased environmental friendliness, reduced the negative impact of transport on the environment. Leaders for the length of railways is a large country: USA, Canada, Russia, India, China. The highest density of railways in Europe and Japan. Least-developed rail transport in Africa.

Road transport is the most Maneuver (brings up cargo and passengers from gate to gate ). The length of roads is growing. In 2002 it was 25 million miles. In developed countries, substantial widely autobahn - Superior high-speed highway. The greatest length of roads with the U.S., Japan, Western Europe.

rapidly developing pipelines. Network of gas and oil pipelines is presented on the map oil and gas . Modern scientific and technical advances make it possible to lay underwater pipelines. The longest among them is the Mediterranean pipeline connecting Algeria to Italy.

Maritime Transport serves mainly international trade. About half its tonnage accounted for by oil and petroleum products. Major waterways stretching across the Atlantic Ocean and off the coast of Southeast Asia. Major ports of the world: Shanghai (379 million tons of loads / year), Singapore, Rotterdam, New York, Philadelphia, Marseilles, London. The most tense areas of maritime marine channels are: Suez (Egypt), Panama, Kiel (Germany).

river and lake transport is particularly important in Russia, USA and Canada. The main navigable rivers of the world is from Mississippi Missouri, Rhine, Danube, Dnieper, Paran

Air transport has the highest cost of transportation, but the pace of development ahead of all other modes of transport. Especially it is important for countries with a large territory and the presence of inaccessible areas and in international passenger traffic. By number of leading U.S. airline, Japan, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Australia. The main airports of the world represented on this map. Most passengers make the airports of Atlanta and Chicago (USA) - annually more than 70 million passengers each.