Cereals. Technical (sugar, klubneplodnaya and tonic) culture (compendium)

Cereals are the most common of all the plants cultivated by man. When they employ about half of processable land (arable land). Appointment of various crops. First they are used as food and raw materials for the population as fodder for cattle.

On this map the most widespread cereal grains , called bread humanity : wheat (makes over 30% of grain), rice (almost 28% ), maize (25%).

wheat are concentrated mainly in the temperate and subtropical zones of the northern hemisphere, where sufficient heat and moisture. Cultivated is mainly winter wheat and ravine. Winter wheat yield is much higher than the spring because the spring gets a lot of moisture from melting snow and have a longer vegetation period. Winter wheat is cultivated more often than spring, but the cold snowless winter it often freeze solid, causing the need to sow in the spring under spring varieties. The largest wheat producers are represented on the map. The major grain exporters in the world market is the United States, Canada, France, Argentina, Australia, South Africa. Great potential in supplying the world market of wheat as Ukraine. Produce high-quality wheat flours, cereals, pasta and confectionery, starch, alcohol.

Rice is the main food crops for almost half of humanity. This culture of tropical and subtropical zone with long and warm summers. It is grown mostly on irrigated (flood) lands in Asia, Latin America, Africa. In most countries receive two harvests a year, so much smaller area than in wheat, rice collected almost the same amount. The biggest development came rice cultivation in Asia ( 9 / 10 of world production). Among the largest producers of rice are China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Japan, Thailand.

Maize (corn) is traditionally a high place in the grain balance in the hemisphere, which is her hometown and became a significant spread of culture also in the south of Europe, China and South Africa. Produced from corn flour, meal, starch, vegetable oil, glucose, alcohol, etc.. Widely used it as a green crop (grain and green mass). Almost half of the volume growth and exports accounted for U.S. corn. Quite a lot of corn grown in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, China.

Animal - is agriculture, which provides the population of food, supplies a variety of raw materials for light and food industries, etc. live traction force. Sector is closely linked to grain growing, because the correct combination is the basis for the successful development of agricultural production in general.

In animal development are two ways: intense and extensive . With the dramatic increase in the development of livestock production given by the productivity of animals (breeding work) at stalled stalled or pasture-animal fodder and balanced high-quality database (mainly concentrated feed). This animal is in developed countries, where a small herd of receiving the maximum number of high quality products. This is especially true of Denmark, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, USA, Australia, New Zealand. About half of world production of meat and milk accounted for a developed country.

Most extensive nature of farming is in developing countries, where the increase in livestock production is achieved by growth of livestock. In this run economy dominated pasture-pasture system of livestock and animal productivity is quite low.

basic components of livestock are: cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, verblyudyarstvo, horse breeding, olenyarstvo . On this map provides information on the leading branches of animal husbandry, and other information presented in part at map Agriculture .

cattle presented growing cows, buffaloes, yaks. Depending on the structure of the herd, forage, cattle production output can have milk, meat, dairy and meat or meat and dairy. Most productive dairy cattle breeding in Europe and North America. Export dairy leaders are Denmark, Switzerland, Netherlands and New Zealand and Australia. Meat direction prevails in areas with arid climate and large pasture. The world's largest area of beef cattle is the South American steppes - pampa . Argentina meat shop called World , through its leading role in the export of beef. Most cattle numbers is India, but about 60% of cows there is not used, while others are used mostly as Tyaglova force. This is due to persistent religious traditions that promotes vegetarian way of eating, and consider the cow sacred.

Pig developed mostly in densely populated areas of the world and in the areas of grain and potatoes - the basis of forage area. Half the total number of pigs comes to Asian countries (except Muslim, where consumption of pork is forbidden religion). Among the world leader in terms of growing pigs is China. A large number of pigs and grown in the U.S. and Russia. Ukraine according to this index includes a representative to dozens of countries.

sheep breeding widespread almost everywhere based on natural pastures in the arid (dry steppe, semi-desert) and mountainous areas. In sheep, depending on the materials that they receive from animals entails the following areas: fine-fleece and napivtonkorunnyy, Karakul'nyi, greasy meat, sheepskin-shubnyy, meat, wool, milk. Wool exporting countries: Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Uruguay.