Australia and Oceania (compendium)

Australia, New Zealand and islands of various sizes and origins in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, due to common geographical and historical evolution, united in a single region - Australia and Oceania.

Australia - industrially developed countries, which plays an important role in the Asia-Pacific area. The biggest state in the Pacific - Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. Many islands are possessions of the United States, Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand. Australia, New Zealand and some islands of Oceania are included in the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Australia and New Zealand - a country resettlement of capitalism, but their development took place under the critical role of the metropolis and the European immigrants who formed the core of the future of nations.

These countries (like South Africa and Canada) are still in primary regions of the world economy. Other countries of Oceania are developing. Their principal asset is the natural conditions and strategic location. The main branches of the economy - growing of tropical crops, fisheries and tourism.

Major Cultural crop - cocoa, sugarcane, bananas, vegetables and fruits. For 3 / 4 of all island countries of Oceania main export product is copra - coconut product processing. Also exports seafood. Some countries are developing and minerals: copper, gold (Papua New Guinea), nickel (New Caledonia), phosphate (Nauru).

New Zealand - agro-industrial country, with well-developed agriculture. Livestock - Leading the industry (the presence of natural grassland), characterized by a high level of mechanization, marketability and high performance. New Zealand is one of the world's largest suppliers of meat (beef, lamb, poultry), butter, wool and cheese.

Australia (Commonwealth) took the entire continent, Australia, Fr. Tasmania, and several small islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Modern Australia - economic development of industrial-agrarian country. In the global economy, it serves as a supplier of raw materials and foodstuffs, has played a significant role in world production and trade of wheat, meat, sugar, and wool and mineral raw materials (iron ore, coal, manganese ores, uranium, bauxite, nickel, bismuth, gold).

leading place in the sectoral structure of farms owned by the manufacturing industry (ferrous metallurgy, machine building, chemical, food, textile, printing).

in the territorial structure of the economy stands southeast of the country. Here are concentrated the largest cities, industrial centers and, accordingly, are the highest population density. Hence began the development of the continent. It is located Sydney - the largest and oldest city, one of the most important industrial and cultural centers in the country, the modern capital of New South Wales.

away from coastal plains in other states the development of intensive agriculture: dairy cattle from grazing on forage grasses and sheep.

In a relatively short period of time Australia has passed a difficult path of economic development. From agro-raw materials appendage metropolis, which was the country in the early twentieth century. It turned into economically advanced nations.

important role in this played a close relationship with the metropolis. Industry, mining, first, and then manufacturing, began to evolve with technology and equipment imported from the Old World. European settlers formed the basis of qualified manpower. Australia has always had a positive migration balance. Every fourth person is born outside Australia. Migration policy of the country contributes to the flow of emigrants.