Latin America (compendium)

to the Latin American region are Mexico, Central America (Central American isthmus and the West Indies) and the countries of mainland South America to nearby islands. Among the countries in the region still found the colony the United States, France, Britain and the Netherlands.

title "Latin America" comes from Latin, the underlying Romance languages: Spanish, Portuguese, French, spoken by the vast majority of people in the region.

Latin America, except Cuba, are in the group of developing countries, but the level of economic development, most of them ahead of the developing countries in Africa and Asia. Nevertheless, levels of development of individual countries in the region, there are significant differences. The most developed - Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia. In the economy of these countries a high proportion of manufacturing industries: mechanical engineering, metalworking, chemical industry and oil refining. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina are the NIS. These countries are sometimes called the Big Three. They account for 2 / 3 of industrial production in the region. Most developed countries in the region were united in Mercosur (map "International Organizations"). In Latin America, on the basis of cost-integration formation of MERCOSUR, formed by the fourth power center of world trade and finance.

Brazil - one of the largest in territory and rich natural resource of the world. Timber reserves in Brazil, taking up a third of the world. Opened in 1500, Brazil got its name from the principal at the time of natural wealth, discovered by Portuguese colonizers in the country. It was sandalwood (pau-brasil), of which generates valuable red-purple dye.

Brazil has large reserves of fresh water, hydropower and various minerals. Unlike most developing countries, in the structure of industry in Brazil is dominated by manufacturing industries: iron and steel (the seventh largest steel producer), engineering (especially for transport: aeronautics, shipbuilding) as well as manufacture of computers. Important source of revenue for the country is the manufacture and export of coffee, which became a national symbol of Brazil. The country accounts for 1 / 4 of world production of instant coffee.

less developed countries are the Central American isthmus, and Bolivia. Small islands of the Caribbean, specializing mainly in the primary processing of agricultural raw materials (sugar, coffee, juices, canned goods), mining of mineral raw materials (Jamaica), travel services.

In countries with underdeveloped economies (Paraguay and Haiti) are dominated by artisanal enterprises for the production of intermediate and consumer goods nature. In the Caribbean, is Cuba - a country with a centrally managed economy. In MGRT she specializes in growing sugar cane, citrus, tobacco. Cuba is renowned for its beautiful resorts.

on the South American mainland distinguished two subregions: the Andean (the country's mountainous west - Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile) and La Plata or the Atlantic (the eastern part of the continent - Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay , Brazil). Differences between the geographic position of the two subregions are manifested in the agricultural specialization of these countries.

modern economy of Latin America share some common features, Historically and determining the economic face of the region. This is, firstly, multistructural economy (public sector, cooperative farming, handicraft production, estates - large private landholdings). Second, specialization farm: monoculture in agriculture, monoproduktivnost in the industry. Thirdly, the dependence on foreign capital and external debt problem.