Emissions of carbon dioxide. Illiteracy (compendium)

This card is in addition to the map "Ecological Problems." It can be used when describing the problem of environmental pollution, particularly air pollution and greenhouse effects. The essence of the greenhouse effect is that the atmosphere is almost entirely missing solar radiation on the Earth. Much the same part of the reflected radiation from the earth's surface (they are mostly infrared rays) is delayed by atmospheric gases near the surface. Thus, there is excessive heating, the most negative consequences of which are melting glaciers, rising sea levels and, consequently, flooding coastal areas.

main pollutants of the atmosphere are gaseous impurities (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, freon), entering the atmosphere from burning fossil fuel and biomass, as well as mining, construction and other earthworks.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are called greenhouse gases, since entering the atmosphere, they increase the greenhouse effect, while building on earth the temperature at which there may be a biological life (approximately 15 ° C). Together with other gases, they make up the atmosphere that exists for millions of years, provides the conditions for living organisms, and protect the Earth from overheating and hypothermia. Since 50-ies. Twentieth century. atmospheric balance disrupted a sharp increase in revenues in greenhouse gas emissions. Their main source is road transport and thermal power.

On the map shows that the highest CO2 emissions by industrial enterprises account for the economically developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere. In China and India's CO2 emissions are the result of burning more fossil fuel, and in Brazil an additional source of CO2 often fires in tropical forests. Methane is emitted to the atmosphere from biomass burning, with rice fields and the cattle.

CFCs - gases of anthropogenic origin - are used in refrigerators, air conditioners, as solvents, sprays, detergents, etc. The increase in CFC content in the atmosphere leads to the destruction of atmospheric ozone, ozone layer depletion, the emergence of so-called ozone hole.

change the gas balance of the atmosphere is the cause of rising average temperatures in the lower atmosphere by 0,5-1 ° C and, consequently, global warming, increasing the duration of the dry season in the Northern Hemisphere (registered in the U.S., Russia , China).


proportion of illiterates in the country's population depends on many factors: the historical traditions, mentality, education expenditures. The economically developed countries accounts for up to 4% of the illiterate adult population of the planet, developing countries accounted for over 9 / 10 world are illiterate. In developing countries, very large regional differences in HIV prevalence. For example, in Africa, more than half of adults are illiterate.

In East Asia - 1 / 4, while in Latin America, about 1 / 6. More than half of all illiterate people of the world falls on India and China - the world's most populous.

In elementary literacy, there is also functional illiteracy, ie inability of a person to orient and adapt to technological changes taking place in public life, to understand the necessary explanations relating to work; inability to use the information network, etc. Functional illiteracy in the developed countries is one of the main reasons for the refusal of work by employers.