Nature (compendium)

Nature Conservancy - is a comprehensive system of international, governmental and public activities aimed at the conservation, rational use and reproduction of natural resources, including the conservation of species diversity (gene pool) of flora and fauna of the Earth and its mineral and water resources, air quality and, consequently, to preserve the natural conditions of human society.

the purpose of conservation measures are carried out:

creation of protected areas;

regulation of the use of natural resources;

protecting the natural environment (water activities, land reclamation, regulation of runoff, reducing the volume of wastewater and sewage treatment, etc.);

independent ecological examination of projects and assessment of the impact of economic activities on the environment;

monitoring of the natural environment (from regional to global monitoring of the biosphere).

This map gives an idea of some protected areas in countries around the world (relative to the total area of the country). Conservation areas, depending on the purpose, features of the protection regime and sizes are divided into reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, reserves, cultural sites and other protected areas. The total area of protected areas of the world is more than 5% of the land surface. The most common in the world are national parks, reserves and reserve.

Reserves - this plots of land or water areas, all derived from economic use, and their main purpose - the benchmark of nature.

Reserves - this territory, which for several years in certain seasons or year-round protected by certain types of animal, plant or part of the natural complex.

National Parks - the most common form of conservation areas, which are characterized by a mass admission of visitors.

to the largest area of environmental objects of the world are Greenland National Park (7,000,000 ha), the Central Kalahari Reserve, Botswana (Africa 5.3 million hectares), the Great Gobi Reserve in Mongolia, the National Park Big Desert Victoria, Australia and others.

In developing countries, the proportion of protected areas is somewhat lower than in developed countries, but it is constantly increasing, because national parks are quite profitable. Nevertheless, the establishment of national parks in Africa, Asia, Latin America slowed down the need for resettlement of nomadic tribes and the possibility of reducing the areas of their business activities (hunting, farming). During armed conflict, national parks are often the scene of the collision of warring parties. And for poachers these areas are often the place of illegal fishing. The world operates many international environmental organizations. Among them is one of the best known - the World Wildlife Fund. This fund operates in more than 90 countries and affects the environmental policy states, supports the implementation of environmental programs.