Environmental issues (compendium)

Environmental concerns have arisen as a result of human interaction with the environment.

second ladle of the twentieth century. due to excessive anthropogenic effects on nature in many countries and regions of the world environmental situation has reached a level of environmental crisis - the stress state between man and nature, when highly modified human nature begins to dramatically affect the social development and there is a threat to the existence of the human species. This is a reversible condition in which humanity, provided that the appropriate response, yet can rectify the situation.

The map shows the territory of which the criteria for environmental assessment referred to areas of ecological crisis:

ocean areas contaminated due to transport petroleum products and other forms of economic activity;

areas of industrial waste disposal in the oceans;

areas to reduce forest area as a result of industrial logging in the northern hemisphere and the areas of destruction of tropical forests;

areas most at risk of desertification.

state of ecological crisis is typical of most large towns - industrial and transportation centers in the world. It almost destroyed the natural landscape and is fixed too high pollution level of all components of the environment.

to the areas of radiation contamination are the place of nuclear weapons tests: atolls of the Pacific Ocean and the Gobi desert (China), Nevada in the U.S., Fr. Novaya Zemlya (Russia), radioactive waste disposal sites and places where the accident occurred nuclear ships, as well as areas that were contaminated as a result of accidents at nuclear power plants (USA, Russia, Ukraine).

In the world there are territories whose state can be characterized as an ecological disaster - an abnormal state of nature, resulting from human activity, leading to extremely negative consequences, or increased morbidity and mortality. An example of an environmental catastrophe is the zone of the Chernobyl (Ukraine, Belarus and Russia) and the Urals region (Russia), where in the last decades of the twentieth century. as a result of depletion and pollution of water and air pollution have sharply deteriorated the living conditions of the population.

Environmental concerns relate to all mankind. Therefore, they can be solved only by joint efforts. In 1992, the International Environment Forum by the representatives of 179 countries adopted the most important document of our time - the Action Programme of Mankind in XXI century. In which the ways of international cooperation in this century, aimed at improving environmental quality and achieving a high standard of living of the population of the planet.