International economic relations (compendium)

world economy as a system of interconnected national economies, was formed on the basis of the international geographical division of labor (MGRT) - specialization of individual countries in the production of certain products, services and exchange. Intergovernmental relations in the economic sphere are called international economic relations. Their basic shape - it's foreign trade, credit and financial relations, scientific and technical relations, international tourism. The map contains information on foreign trade, credit and financial relations.

formation and development of international economic relations began with the trade. Its volumes are constantly growing, changing trade patterns, especially the rapidly growing proportion of new technologies, products and services. In the world there are three centers of international trade: Europe, Asia Pacific and North America. Turnover in Western Europe is approximately 40% of the world. The absolute volume of exports to the world the first place is Germany. The second region is Asia on turnover (about 26%). In it the main centers of international trade are the Japan, China, Newly industrialized economies (NIEs) and the oil producing Gulf States. In third place in terms of foreign trade in North America (about 20% of world trade). According to the volume of U.S. imports do not have competitors. Of great importance is the trade between developed and developing countries. The status of a raw materials appendage to the industrializedTran still apply to most developing countries. They still remain the main suppliers of oil, copper, cotton, natural rubber and food products: coffee, cocoa, sugar, bananas, etc. But in the export structure of the NIS in Asia and Latin America in recent years has increased significantly share of manufactured goods.

important indicator of foreign trade is the trade balance (deficit) - the difference between the value of exported and imported goods for the year. Balance is a passive (negative) and active (positive). Traditionally, high positive balance (the value of exports dominates the cost of imports) are Japan, Germany. Negative balance in the U.S. is the result of large imports of raw materials and fuels from developing countries.

International trade develops according to objective economic laws and is coordinated by the World Trade Organization (WTO). This organization unites 145 countries. Its main task is to create a strong and prosperous trading system of the world, contributes to the increase in international trade.

credit and financial relations are manifested in exports (exports) of capital in two forms: loans and credits and direct investment in the establishment of enterprises on foreign territory, or acquisition of existing companies in order to obtain profit or to satisfy political interests . Exports of capital - one of the most important features of foreign economic activity in developed countries. The main form of capital exports are direct investments, ie, giving the investor the right to control the activities of a particular object. The bulk of these investments provide the largest transnational companies (TNCs) in the world: Nestle (Switzerland), General Motors (USA), Royal-Dutch-Shell (UK - Netherlands), Hitachi (Japan), Daimler-Chrysler (Germany - U.S.) and other . Developed countries exporting capital-intensive in developing countries, there perebaziruya environmentally harmful production, using low-wage labor, exploiting the natural resources of the articlewounds. Along with investing in agriculture in developing countries, developed countries are investing heavily in the economies of their developed counterparts, which are less risky but less profitable. So part of the Japanese capital is directed to the economy of the United States and Western Europe. EU countries invest their capital, both within the Union, and in regions in transition. Areas of investment are shown on the map.

Also at the map presents the main banking and financial centers of the world, whose components are the national and international banks (international banking consortia), stock and commodity exchanges. In the world there are two types of world financial centers: one arose on the basis of national capital markets (London, Paris, Zurich), others - on the basis of international capital markets (Singapore, Hong Kong).

important components of the global economy is an offshore zone - the area or individual countries that have a preferential mode of taxation, credit and foreign exchange regulation and created simplified conditions for business registration in order to ensure the most favorable conditions for foreign capital. Now more than 100 countries and territories have offshore centers. But in industrialized countries, the practice is not widespread.