Employment in service sectors of the economy. Unemployment (compendium)

Employment in selected sectors of the economy is defined as a percentage of the economically active population (employees), which represented part of the workforce directly employed in social production. In most economically developed countries in the working-age population includes people who have reached 15 years. In developing countries, this boundary begins with 12-14 years, and in some African countries - even with the age of six.

employment structure reflects the structure of agriculture and the socio-economic development. The main trend in the employment structure in the world is to increase the number of people employed in service industries by reducing the share of employed in material production. Replaced the agrarian and industrial eras came post-industrial, which is characterized by ever-increasing role of non-productive sphere and its transformation into a major world economy.

In developed countries the share of population employed in industrial sectors, ranging from 35 to 40%, while the number working in agriculture and adjacent areas is constantly decreasing (5-20%). At the same time, the number of people employed in non-manufacturing sector, especially in trade, finance, banking and management activities reaches 50%, and in the Big Eight - 70%.

In most developing countries in the employment structure considerably exceeds the share of agriculture is less than before the service sector, even less - the industrial sector. This is due to the nature of the agrarian economy and low productivity in agriculture, which develops mainly through an extensive, and the expansion of small-scale trading.

In the wealthy oil-exporting countries, prosperous resort island countries and newly industrialized countries, employment structure resembles the structure of employment in developed countries (up to 70% of workers employed in services).

in post-socialist countries in the industries employing up to 40% in agriculture and adjacent areas - up to 20% of workers. In the non-productive sector employs about 30%, but in contrast to developed countries where most work in schools, healthcare and culture. At that time, as banking, retail and management skills are in the formative stage. Thus, the structure of employment can be considered a key indicator of the level of development of the country and used in its characterization.

Unemployed - is part of the population of working age who are not involved in the sphere of tangible and intangible production, and is looking for a job.

The unemployment rate in the developed countries ranges from 2 to 12%. Unemployment here is usually a temporary phenomenon associated with the job search on the desired specialty, or in connection with requalification. A well-developed social security system and re-enables the unemployed to find work fairly quickly.

In transition countries the unemployment rate varies from 4% (the Czech Republic, Hungary) and to 9% (some CIS countries). With the transition to a market economy, these countries have also begun to actively introduce yourself in the employment service to create a civilized labor market and reducing social tensions.

For many developing countries is characterized by massive unemployment, causing the emigration of young people in more developed countries.

in the poorest African countries, population is mainly engaged in subsistence sectors, providing a livelihood. There is virtually no system of registration of unemployed, training and retraining of workers and the civilized labor market. Accurate figures on the extent of unemployment is not there.